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chapter ten

nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS)consists of brain and spinal cord
The Peripheral nervous system consists of how many cranial nerves 12
The PNS consists of how many spinal nerves 31
Name the two catagories of cells of the nervous system Neurons and Neuroglia
How many neuroglia cells are in each neuron about 50
Name two functions of the nervous system to organize information and initate appropriate responses
The anatomical divisions of the nervous system are central and peripheral
What purpose do neurons serve to transmit impulses
Name three things that support the neuroglia Oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal, astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes do what produce mylelin in the spinal cord
What is the purpose of microglia to move and phagocytize pathogen and damaged tissue
Ependymal cells do what line ventricles of the brain and secrete cerebrospinal fluid
In the neuroglia what provides structural support astrocytes
Astrocytes wrap around capillaries to contrubuite to BBB (blood brain barrier)
Capillaries in the CNS are less permeable because they are supported by astrocytes
_____________ cells are in the peripheal nervous system Schwann
The cell membrane of the Schwann cells is made mostly of phospholipids
What is another name for neurofibril nodes Nodes of Ranvier
Nerve transmission is sped up by saltatory conduction
In the neurilemma of the Schwann cells a pathway is created to regenerate peripheral nerves
This is a neuron fiber covering and is for which cells Schwann
What is a function of sensory neurons send impulses TO the CNS
What is another name for Afferent neurons sensory neurons
These receptors are located in the skin, skeletal muscles and joints Somatic
Name the two types of sensory receptors viseral and somatic
Efferent neurons do what receive inpulsed FROM the CNS
Somatic neurons effect which muscles skeletal
What muscles are effected by viseral neurons smooth and cardiac
Viseral neurons also effect ________ glands
Give another name for motor neurons efferent neurons
Name two structures affected by efferent neurons muscles or glands
Interneurons __________ CNS neurons together connect
____________ are found only in the central nervous system inter neurons
Sensory neurons are connected to motor neurons by ___________________ inter neurons
These neurons make up 90% of the bodys neurons inter neurons
What is another name for a cell body soma
A cell body contains the nucleus and __________ organelles
Dendrites do what send impulses TOWARD the cell body
Which nerve fiber sends impulses away from the cell body Axon
Which type of neuron has multiple dendrites multi polar
When at rest a neuron is said to be polarized
A polarized neuron has more _____ on the inside K+ (potassium)
There is more sodium on the ________ of a polarized neuron outside
A polarized neuron has a ______ charge on the inside and a ______ charge on the outside negative, positive
In ______ _______ depolarization is followed by repolarization Action potential
During depolarization a neuron travels down the neuron fiber in _____ direction one
What channels open during repolarization allowing potassium to rush in restoring a net charge potassium
During the _________ period the neuron will not send another inpulse refractory
Action potential can happen hundreds of times per ________ second
The neuron will/will not send another inpulse during this stage will not
Where is the only place myelinated fibers can depolarize at nodes of Ranvier
What is the velocity of nerve transmission in myelinated fibers 120 meters per second
Name the space between the axon and dendrite synapse
The terminal at the end of the presynaptic axon is called ___________ synaptic knob
The synaptic knob releases neurotransmitters by __________ extocytosis
Chemicals that inhibit or excite a neuron in a synapse are called__________ neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters do what to receptors on the post synaptic neuron attach
Name the most common neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh)
Name three chemicals released by neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, gluamate
An inactivatior is an emzyme that activates/deactivates a neurotransmitter deactivates
Reabsorption of a neurotransmitter back into a neuron that released it is called re uptake
Reuptake occurs in how many directions one
The spinal cord transmits signals between the brain and the _________ PNS (PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM)
The______ ______ extends from the foramen magnum to about L1-L2 spinal cord
Meninges and __________ __________ extend beyond the to the sacrum cauda equina
The inner part of the spinal cord is called gray matter
________ matter is the outer part of the spinal cord white
White matter consists of _________ nerve_______ myelinated , fibers
There are ___ ____ per spinal nerve two, roots
Afferent fibers in the dorsal root are _______ sensory
Name the posterior nerve dorsal
A ventral nerve is _______ anterior
Efferent fibers are in the _______ root ventral
Meninges are connective tissue membranes that cover the _______ and _______ _______ brain, spinal cord
Name the three layers of the meninges dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
Web like strands that connect to pia mater are called Arachnoid mater
Dura mater lines the cranium and ______ ______ vertebral canal
______ _______ covers and contacts the brain and spinal cord pia mater
Subarachnoid space is between the ______ mater and ____________ mater pia, arachnoid
Inflammation of the meninges is called meningitis
Bundles of functionally related fibers in the spinal cord are called ________ or tracts fasciculi
_________ fasciculi carry impulses up the spinal cord to the brain ascending
Descending _______carry impulses down the spinal cord fasciculi
Ascending fasciculi are always _______ impulses sensory
___________ fasciculi are always motor impulses descending
The spinal nerves are named according to the vertebra _______ below
The nerve between C7 and T1 called _____ C8
The thoracic _____, sacral and _______ spinal nerves are named according to vertebra above lumbar, coccygeal
How many spinal nerves are in the human body 31
The ______ ______ supply various structures in the head and neck cervical plexus
Brachial plexus supply the upper/lower extremeties upper
Name the largest nerve in the body sciatic nerve
Which group of spinal nerves is latin for horse tail cauda equina
Spinal cord______ do not depend on the brain reflexes
________ ________ involve stimulation of a skeletal muscle somatic reflexes
Reflexes are ___________ responses to a stimulus involuntary
The 5 parts of a reflex arc are receptors, _____, sensory neurons, motor _____ and ______ CNS, neurons, effectors
Flexor reflexes are also called _________ withdrawl reflexes
What are righting reflexes used for catching yourself from falling
Name two of the four major divisons of the brain cerebrum, brain stem, diencephalon, cerebellum
The four cavities of the brain are ___________________ 2 lateral ventricles, third ventricle,fourth ventricle
The fourth ventricle is located between the _______ and the _________ cerebellum, mid brain
Ventricles of the brain contain _______________ CSF (cerebreal spinal fluid)
Cerebral spinal fluid has ________________ functions three
Which part of the brain removes waste products CSF
Name the functions of CSF bring nutrients to CNS, remove waste, cushion the brain
The brainstem includes Midbrain, pons, medulla
What reflexes are in the midbrain visual, auditory, righting
The _______ serves as a relay center midbrain
Another name for the medulla is ____________ medulla oblongata
Which part of the medulla regulates blood pressure Vasomotor center
Coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting are all reflex centers of the ___________ medulla
The hypothalamus is ______to thalamus and ________to pituitary gland inferior, superior
Which part of the diencephalon is lateral to the 3rd ventricle thalamus
Superior to the hypothalamus is the thalamus
The thalamus allows __________without distraction concentration
The ___________ produces hormones hypothalamus
The thalamus/hypothalamus is involved in emotional responses hypothalamus
The cerebral cortex is made of white matter
The largest part of the brain is the ________ cerebrum
The longitudeinal fissure divides the cerebrum into front and back hemispheres True/False false Right/Left
What is another name for gray matter basal nuclei or basal ganglia
The frontal lobes control motor function True/False true
Frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe and __________ are areas of the cerebum insula
The ________lobe controls governs proprioception(Awareness of body parts in relation to each other) parietal
Name the two types of parietal lobes superior / lateral
Parietal lobes control ________sensory areas general
_________ lobes control visual information Occipital
Cranial nerves contain _____ pairs of __________ nerves 12, peripheral
The ___________ nerve controls smell olfactory CNI
CNII, the optic nerve is made up of __________ from the retina neurons
Another name for the Acoustic nerve is Vestibulocochlear
Hearing and balance is controlled by the _______ CNVIII (Vestibulocochlear)
Vagus nerve supplies what internal organs of the ventral cavity
Created by: sunshine63