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NWHSU Bio II Final

QuestionAnswer
What are the dangers of blood glucose levels being too high for weeks, months, or years? - Destruction of tissue (due to reducing properties of glucose): need for kidney transplant, dialysis, amputation of limbs, blindness.
What are signs and dangers of the blood glucose level being too low? - signs of hunger, subtle neurological signs, trembling, sweating - if lower: lethargy, convulsions, coma - very low: permanent brain damage, death
Where in the cell do the reactions of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis occur? - Glycolysis: all reactions in cytoplasm - Gluconeogenesis: first step (pyruvate carboxylase) in mitochondria; second step (PEP carboxykinase) in mitochondria or cytoplasm; rest in cytoplasm
Describe in one or two sentences what happens in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. - Glycolysis: Glucose (C6) is converted to two pyruvate (C3) under production of two ATP and 2 NADH. - Gluconeogenesis: Glucose (C6) is formed from two pyruvate (C3) requiring the energy equivalent of 6 ATP and undergoing a reduction provided by 2 NADH
What happens in the preparatory and the pay-off phases of glycolysis? - Preparatory: 2 ATP are invested to phosphorylate glucose which is then converted to 2 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate - Pay-off: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is converted to pyruvate is oxidized, yielding NADH. During the conversion 2 ATP are formed.
Which reactions are irreversible in glycolysis (name the enzyme catalyzing the reaction)? 1. glucose --> glucose 6-P (hexokinase, glucokinase) 2. fructose 6-P --> fructose 1,6 bisphosphate (phosphofructokinase-1) 3. phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP) --> pyruvate (pyruvate kinase)
Which reactions are irreversible in gluconeogenesis (name the enzyme catalyzing the reaction)? pyruvate --> oxaloacetate (pyruvate carboxylase) oxaloacetate --> PEP (PEP carboxykinase) fructose 1,6-bisphosphate --> fructose 6-P (fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase) glucose 6-P --> glucose (glucose 6-phosphatase)
What is the minimum requirement of number of carbon in a precursor for gluconeogenesis? 3
What is the function of insulin and glucagon with respect to [blood glucose]? - Insulin lowers if it is too high - Glucagon increases if too low
Which enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis are regulated? - glycolysis: hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1, pyruvate kinase - gluconeogenesis: pyruvate carboxylase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose 6-phosphatase
What types of regulatory mechanisms are used in general? - allosteric regulation - hormone action - isoenzymes - occurrence restricted to certain tissue(s) or organelle(s)
List the specific regulations for the regulated enzyme Hexokinase. - hexokinase IV has much higher Km than hexokinases I-III - inhibited by fructose 6-phosphate (formed under gluconeogenic conditions) - hexokinases I-III inhibited by glucose 6-phosphate
List the specific regulations for the regulated enzyme Phosphofructokinase-1. - allosterically activated by AMP, ADP, and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (stimulates glycolysis, inhibits gluconeogenesis); it’s break-down is stimulated by glucagon - allosterically inhibited by ATP and citrate
List the specific regulations for the regulated enzyme Pyruvate Kinase. - allosterically inhibited by ATP, acetyl-CoA, long-chain fatty acids - allosterically activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate - in liver: inhibited by glucagon (in order to further gluconeogenesis)
List the specific regulations for the regulated enzyme Pyruvate Carboxylase. - allosterically activated by acetyl-CoA
List the specific regulations for the regulated enzyme Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphatase. - inhibited by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (stimulates glycolysis, inhibits gluconeogenesis); it’s formation is stimulated by insulin
List the specific regulations for the regulated enzyme Glucose 6-Phosphatase:. - only expressed in liver and renal cortex - located in endoplasmatic reticulum
Which mineral is vital for several enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis? Mg2+
Which vitamins are essential for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis? - B3 (Niacin) for NAD+ (glyceraldehyde 3-P dehydrogenase) - Biotin (pyruvate carboxylase)
Define Glucagon Hormone that has the function to increase [blood glucose] if it is too low
Define Gluconeogenesis Anabolic pathway that leads to the production of glucose from C3 (and C4) precursors, e.g. pyruvate
Define Glucose C6 carbohydrate, substrate of glycolysis
Define Glycogen carbohydrate polymer consisting of glucose building blocks (a14, branched with a16)
Define Glycolysis catabolic pathway in which glucose gets broken down to pyruvate under formation of ATP and NADH
Define Glycogenolysis Catabolic pathway that leads to the degradation of the polysaccharide glycogen to glucose 1-P
Define Glycogenesis Anabolic pathway that leads to the formation of the glucose polymer glycogen
Define Glycogenin Protein needed to start the formation of glycogen molecules
What is the intermediate that can be channelled into 4 different pathways in the carbohydrate metabolism? Glucose 6-Phosphate
What happens under anaerobic conditions if the cell is in need of energy? Fermentation of pyruvate to lactate to recycle NADH for glycolysis; energy (ATP) comes from glycolysis (yield is 2 ATP/glucose)
Which enzymes of the Glycolysis Pathway are regulated? 1. hexokinase 2. phosphofructokinase-1 3. pyruvate kinase
Which enzymes of the Gluconeogenisis Pathway are regulated? 1. pyruvate carboxylase 2. fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 3. glucose 6-phosphatase
Which enzymes of the Glycogen Metabolism Pathway are regulated? 1. glycogen phosphorylase 2. glycogen synthase
Which enzymes of Pentose Phosphate Pathway are regulated? 1. glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase
What is the main purpose of the Glycogen Metabolism Pathway? Short-term energy storage
What is the main purpose of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway? Nucleotide precursors, Antioxidants, Biosynthesis
What is the main purpose of the Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis Pathway? Energy
What is the main purpose of the Fermentation Pathway? Energy
What are the general functions of insulin, glucagon, and epinephrine? - insulin: lower blood glucose level if > 4-5mM - glucagon: increase blood glucose lever if < 4-5 mM - epinephrine: fight or flight hormone; activate energy storage forms for increased ATP requirement in skel. muscle
Which enzyme activities of the carbohydrate metabolism are affected by insulin? - glycogen phosphorylase inhibited - glycogen synthase stimulated - phosphofructokinase-1 stimulated and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase inhibited (via stimulation of formation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate from fructose 6-phosphate)
Which enzyme activities of the carbohydrate metabolism are affected by glucagon (liver)? - phosphofructokinase-1 inhibited and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase stimulated (via stimulation of break-down of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate) - pyruvate kinase inhibited - glycogen phosphorylase stimulated -glycogen synthase inhibi
Which enzyme activities of the carbohydrate metabolism are affected by epinephrine (muscle, liver)? - glycogen phosphorylase stimulated - glycogen synthase inhibited
(Part 1 of 3) Name minerals and vitamins that are important for the carbohydrate metabolism and list the enzymes these vitamins are essential for. Mg2+ needed for several enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and the oxidative phase of the PPP (pentose phosphate pathway) Biotin: - pyruvate carboxylase(gluconeogenesis) Thiamine (B1): - transketolase (non-oxidative phase of the PPP) (Cont'd -->)
(Part 2 of 3) Name minerals and vitamins that are important for the carbohydrate metabolism and list the enzymes these vitamins are essential for. Niacin (B3):  part of coenzymes NAD (glycolysis, fermentation) - glyceraldehyde 3-P dehydrogenase (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) - lactate dehydrogenase (fermentation) - glucose 6-P dehydrogenase (PPP) - 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PPP)
(Part 3 of 3) Name minerals and vitamins that are important for the carbohydrate metabolism and list the enzymes these vitamins are essential for.  --> part of coenzyme NADP (pentose phosphate pathway) - glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase - 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase
What is a triacylglycerol (sometimes commonly called fat)? It is a tri-ester compound between glycerol and three fatty acids.
The body can get triacylglycerols from two sources, nutrition and its own fat storage (adipose tissue). Briefly describe the main steps of how the fatty acids reach the cells of the target tissues that heavily rely on fatty acids for energy production. Find Answer in Question #2 in the document titled Answers: Fat Catabolism – Review Questions on Moodle
Where in the cell do fatty acids get processed for energy production? Mainly in mitochondria, but also in peroxisomes
Which pathway(s) are involved in the complete oxidation of fatty acids to CO2 and H2O? - b oxidation - citric acid cycle - electron transport chain
What happens with fatty acids in b oxidation (generalized not details of reaction mechanism)? - they cycle through 4 enzymatic reactions - in 2 of them the fatty acid gets oxidized while 1 FAD and 1 NAD get reduced - at the end of each cycle a 2 carbon compound acetyl-CoA gets released - the fatty acyl-CoA enters the next cycle of 4 steps
What is the problem with unsaturated fatty acids and how is it solved (generalized, not details of reaction mechanism)? Find Answer in Question #6 in the document titled Answers: Fat Catabolism – Review Questions on Moodle
What is the problem with odd-numbered fatty acids and how is it solved (generalized, not details of reaction mechanism)? i. the last cycle of b oxidation yields propionyl-CoA which can't undergo another cycle of b oxidation ii. propionyl-CoA (C3) gets carboxylated, leading to the formation of a 4-carbon compound that gets rearranged in two reactions to form succinyl-CoA
How is oxidation of fatty acids different in peroxisomes (compared to mitochondria; discuss fate of products, function of peroxisomes)? - FADH2 reacts with water to form H2O2 - NADH and acetyl-CoA get exported - functions of peroxisomes: i. detoxification of compounds; H2O2 oxidizes these compounds and thereby makes them less toxic ii. processing of very long chain fatty acids
Under what circumstances will the body start producing large amounts of ketone bodies? starvation and uncontrolled diabetes
What are the names of the three ketone bodies? 1. acetoacetate 2. D-b-hydroxybutyrate 3. acetone
What is the purpose of ketone bodies? recycling of coenzyme A in order for b oxidation to proceed and yield FADH2 and NADH which can be used for energy production (acetyl-CoA builds up when oxaloacetate is used for gluconeogenesis; thus the citric acid cycle is non-functional)
Name the four major groups of lipoproteins. - Chylomicrons - VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) - LDL (low density lipoprotein) - HDL (high density lipoprotein)
Which lipoprotein is referred to as ‘bad cholesterol’? LDL
Which lipoprotein is referred to as ‘goog cholesterol’? HDL
Which type of lipoprotein has the highest cholesterol content? LDL
Which type of lipoprotein has the lowest density? Chylomicrons
Which type of lipoprotein is formed in the liver and released into the bloodstream? VLDL
Which type of lipoprotein is formed in the lining of the intestinal tract and released into the lymph? Chylomicrons
Which type of lipoprotein has the highest triacylglycerol content? Chylomicrons
Which type of lipoprotein acts as a ‘scavenger’ for cholesterol in the blood and performs reverse cholesterol transport? HDL
Where does that (4f) lipoprotein carry the scavenged cholesterol? to the liver
How do lipoproteins enter liver cells? via receptor-mediated endocytosis
Where do triacylglycerols in VLDL’s come from? Unused fatty acids that circulated through system, unused fatty acids from food, as well as well as newly synthesized fatty acids (from carbohydrate or protein breakdown) get built into triacylglycerols (fatty acid and fat synthesis in the liver)
List all the enzymes in the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism that are affected by epinephrine and glucagon? - glycogen synthase - glycogen phosphorylase - PFK-1 - fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase
List the enzyme that is only affected by glucagon. - pyruvate kinase
Glucagon and epinephrine usually have the same effect on enzymes with the exception of ________. glycolysis (in the liver and skeletal muscle)
Explain how regular exercise helps with weight loss and the lowering of cholesterol (touch on the pathways involved and the enzymes affected). Find Answer in Question #3 in document titled Answers to Metabolism Review Questions on Moodle
Pyruvate is a key intermediate. Which metabolites are formed from Pyruvate/ From Pyruvate: - oxaloacetate - alanine - lactate - acetyl-CoA
Pyruvate is a key intermediate. Which metabolites can get converted to Pyruvate (1 enzymatic step only). To Pyruvate: - PEP - alanine (threonine, tryptophan) - lactate - serine (glycine), cysteine - malate
Acetyl-CoA is another key intermediate. Which pathways lead to acetyl-CoA? To Acetyl-CoA: - glycolysis, PDH complex (breakdown of glucose and certain amino acids) - b oxidation (breakdown of fatty acids) - breakdown of certain amino acids - citrate lyase reaction - breakdown of ketone bodies
Acetyl-CoA is another key intermediate. Which pathways lead from acetyl-CoA? From Acetyl-CoA: - TCA cycle - fatty acid synthesis - ketone body formation - cholesterol synthesis
Oxidative breakdown of amino acids leads to CO2, H2O and nitrogen (NH4+). How does nitrogen get removed from the human body? Mainly in the form of urea (in addition, quite large amounts of N also get excreted via breakdown products of hemoglobin, stercobilin in feces and urobilin in urine).
What happens in a transamination reaction? Which vitamin does the enzyme rely on? It is a reaction (catalyzed by pyridoxin-Vitamin B6-dependent transaminase) where an a-amino acid and an a-ketoacid “exchange” the a-amino-group and the a-keto-group
What special functions does glutamate have? - glutamate is THE source of NH4+ that gets converted to carbamoyl phosphate, the CN compound that gets channelled into the urea cycle; glutamate is formed in the cytoplasm of any cell
What special functions does glutamine have? - glutamine gets formed from combining glutamate and NH4+ in extrahepatic tissue and has the function of transporting “scavenged” NH4+ from extrahepatic tissue to the liver
What special functions does alanine have? - alanine is formed from the transamination reaction of pyruvate (with any amino acid as a reaction partner) in skeletal muscle; it carries pyruvate the product of glycolysis and a nitrogen to the liver, where the nitrogen gets channelled into the urea cy
Name the 9 essential amino acids. - Leu - Lys - Trp - Thr - His - Phe - Ile - Met - Val
Why are tyrosine and cysteine called conditionally essential? Their biosynthesis relies on the availability of the essential amino acids phenylalanine and methionine, respectively.
Name important cofactors of amino acid metabolism, from which vitamin are they derived? - B3 = niacin - B5 = pantothenic acid - B6 = pyridoxin (PLP=pyridoxal phosphate) - biotin (= B8) - tetrahydrofolate (folic acid) = B9 - B12 = cobalamin - essential amino acid methionine: part of S-adenosylmethionine
Name the 6 amino acids that are broken down to the production of acetyl-CoA and point out the 2 amino acids that are exclusively ketogenic. Trp, Phe, Tyr, Ile, *Leu, *Lys
Name the 6 amino acids that are broken down to pyruvate. Thr, Gly, Ser, Trp, Ala, Cys
Name the 5 amino acids that are broken down to a-ketoglutarate. Arg, Pro, Glu, Gln, His
Name the 4 amino acids that are broken down to succinyl-CoA. Ile, Met, Thr, Val
Name the 2 amino acids that are broken down to oxaloacetate. Asp, Asn
Which amino acids are derived from a-ketoglutarate? Glu, Gln, Pro, Arg
Which amino acids are derived from 3-phosphoglycerate? Ser, Cys, Gly
Which amino acids are derived from pyruvate? Ala
Which amino acids are derived from oxaloacetate? Asp, Asn
Name the amino acid precursors of heme, creatine, glutathione, NO, catecholamines, serotonin, GABA, histamine, purines and pyrimidines. - Heme <- Gly - Creatine <- Gly, Arg, Met - Glutathione <- Gly, Cys, Glu - NO <- Arg - Catecholamines: Phe -> Tyr -> Dopa -> Dopamine -> Norepinephrine -> Epinephrine - Serotonin <- Trp - GABA <- Glu - histamine <- histidine
What is/are the breakdown product(s) of purines and pyrimidines? - purines -> uric acid - pyrimidines -> NH4+ -> urea
Pair the following neurotransmitters/cytokines with the amino acids they are derived from: histamine  GABA  serotonin  DOPA  dopamine  norepinephrine  epinephrine  histamine <- histidine GABA <- glutamate serotonin <- tryptophan DOPA <- tyrosine dopamine <- tyrosine norepinephrine <- tyrosine epinephrine <- tyrosine
Which of the following is NOT a carbohydrate metabolism enzyme? A. Pyruvate kinase B. Glycogen phosphorylase C. Hormone-sensitive lipase D. Phosphofructokinase E. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase Hormone-sensitive lipase
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is an enzyme of A. Carbohydrate anabolism B. Carbohydrate catabolism C. Lipid anabolism D. Lipid catabolism Lipid anabolism
HMG-CoA reductase is an enzyme of _______________. A. cholesterol synthesis B. beta-oxidation C. fatty acid synthesis D. the pentose phosphate pathway E. the citric acid cycle cholesterol synthesis
___________ is activated by insulin. A. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase B. Citrate lyase C. Hormone-sensitive lipase D. Pyruvate kinase Citrate lyase
Which is a key intermediate between the carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid catabolism? A. Alpha-ketoglutarate B. Succinyl-CoA C. Acetyl-CoA D. 3-Phosphoglycerate E. Pyruvate Pyruvate
HMG-CoA is the point of divergence of A. the ketone and cholesterol catabolism B. the biosynthetic pathways of ketones and cholesterol C. triacylglycerol and phospholipid catabolism D. the biosynthetic pathways of triacylglycerols and phospholipids the biosynthetic pathways of ketones and cholesterol
Which two compounds are carbohydrates? 1. Sucrose 2. Amino acid 3. Phospholipid 4. Cholesterol 5. Dipeptide 6. Glucose Sucrose Glucose
Glycolysis is the conversion of ________ to _______. 1. glucose; CO2 and H2O 2. glucose; pyruvate 3. pyruvate; CO2 and H2O 4. acetyl-CoA; CO2 and H2O glucose; pyruvate
In the Krebs cycle, 1. C gets reduced and O gets oxidized. 2. C gets reduced and universal e--carriers get oxidized. 3. C gets oxidized and O gets reduced. 4. C gets oxidized and universal e--carriers get reduced. C gets oxidized and universal e--carriers get reduced.
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain is ___. 1. NAD+ 2. ADP 3. H2O 4. O2 5. acetyl-CoA O2
Glucose is a carbon … sugar. 1. 3 2. 4 3. 5 4. 6 5. 7 6
The product of glycolysis is 1. Pyruvate 2. Acetyl-CoA 3. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate 4. Oxaloacetate 5. Malate Pyruvate
The net energy gain in glycolysis is …ATP/glucose 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. 4 5. 5 6. 6 2
Of the 10 steps of glycolysis, … are bypassed in gluconeogenesis. 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. 4 5. 5 3
Gluconeogenesis occurs in … 1. Erythrocytes 2. Adipocytes 3. Myocytes 4. Lymphocytes 5. Hepatocytes Hepatocytes
Which enzyme is exclusively found in the matrix of mitochondria? 1. Pyruvate kinase 2. Hexokinase 3. Fructose 1,6-phosphatase 4. Pyruvate carboxylase 5. PEP carboxykinase 6. Glucose 6-phosphatase Pyruvate carboxylase
The net energy requirement in gluconeogenesis (from pyruvate) is …ATP/glucose 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. 4 5. 5 6. 6 6
The anaerobic breakdown of glucose in skeletal muscle and the recycling of its product to glucose in the liver is called … . A. fermentation B. Cori cycle C. TCA cycle D. pentose phosphate pathway E. glycogenesis Cori cycle
Glycogen is a ______ polysaccharide. 1. Unbranched homo- 2. Branched homo- 3. Unbranched hetero- 4. Branched hetero Branched homo-
Glycogen is stored in a. Adipose tissue b. The liver c. Skeletal muscle d. The heart muscle e. The kidneys The liver and Skeletal muscle
The ∂1 -> 6 branches in glycogen A. form spontaneously. B. are formed by a special branching enzyme. C. are formed by glycogen synthase. are formed by a special branching enzyme.
Products of the pentose phosphate pathway are used as 1. nucleotide building blocks 2. antioxidants 3. electron donors in biosynthetic processes. 4. All of the above. All of the above.
How do dietary fats enter the cells of the intestinal mucosa? 1. Since they are fat-soluble they can penetrate the cell membrane. 2. Mainly as fatty acids and other breakdown products. 3. As micelles formed with bile salts. 4. As chylomicrons. Mainly as fatty acids and other breakdown products.
… lipase is found in adipocytes. 1. Hormone-sensitive 2. Lipoprotein 3. Pancreatic Hormone-sensitive
FFA get transported from adipose tissue to energy-requiring tissues 1. in chylomicrons. 2. as free fatty acids. 3. bound to albumin. 4. as triacylglycerols. 5. bound to carnitine. bound to albumin.
Through ß Oxidation fatty acids are … 1. completely oxidized to CO2 and H2O. 2. are oxidized to acetyl-CoA. 3. converted to glucose. 4. converted to unsaturated fatty acids. are oxidized to acetyl-CoA.
ß Oxidation occurs in … 1. the cytoplasm. 2. mitochondria. 3. the blood. 4. the endoplasmatic reticulum. mitochondria.
ß Oxidation consists of … enzymatic steps that get repeated until a fatty acids are broken down into acetyl-CoA (C2). 1. 2 2. 4 3. 6 4. 8 5. 10 4
Each cycle of b Oxidation yields … 1. 1 FADH2, 1 NADH, and 1 acetyl-CoA. 2. 1 FADH2, 3 NADH, and 2 acetyl-CoA. 3. 2 FADH2, 2 NADH, and 1 acetyl-CoA. 4. 1 FADH2, 1 NADH, and 2 acetyl-CoA. 1 FADH2, 1 NADH, and 1 acetyl-CoA.
One FADH2 channelled into the e- transport system yields … ATP. 1. 1.5 2. 2.5 3. 3 4. 5 1.5
The complete oxidation of hexanoate yields more ATP than glucose because … 1. glucose is more water-soluble than hexanoate. 2. glucose cannot get protonated unlike hexanoate 3. glucose is more oxidized than hexanoate. glucose is more oxidized than hexanoate.
How many acetyl-CoA are involved in the whole process of ketone body formation ? 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. 4 5. 5 3
Which ketone body is excreted and not available for energy production? 1. acetone 2. D-ß-hydroxybutyrate 3. acetoacetate acetone
Fatty acid synthesis occurs mainly in … 1. skeletal muscle. 2. heart muscle. 3. the brain. 4. the liver. Liver
The C3-precursor used to elongate the fatty acyl group during fatty acid synthesis is 1. malonyl-CoA. 2. malate. 3. succinyl-CoA. 4. acetyl-CoA. malonyl-CoA.
Like pyruvate carboxylase and propionyl- CoA carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase is … dependent. 1. Mg2+ 2. niacin 3. thiamin 4. biotin 5. cobalamin biotin
The repeating four reactions of fatty acid synthesis are catalyzed by … 1. the same four enzymes that catalyze b oxidation. 2. one protein named fatty acid synthase. 3. acetyl-CoA carboxylase. one protein named fatty acid synthase.
The electron-donor for the two reductive reactions in fatty acid synthesis is …. 1. ATP 2. NADH 3. NADPH 4. FADH2 5. O2 NADPH
The final product(s) of fatty acid synthesis is/are … 1. linoleic acid. 2. even-number saturated fatty acids. 3. palmitate. 4. propionate. palmitate
… ATP and … NADPH are needed for each palmitate synthesized. 1. 7;14 2. 14;7 3. 8;16 4. 16;8 7;14
How does acetyl-CoA get from the matrix of mitochondria to the cytosol? 1. It gets transported via active transport in exchange for citrate. 2. There is a transport protein for citrate, which gets converted back to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. There is a transport protein for citrate (formed from oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA), which gets converted back to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA.
Insulin … 1. has no effect on fatty acid synthesis. 2. has an enhancing effect fatty acid synthesis. 3. has an inhibitory effect on fatty acid synthesis. has an enhancing effect on fatty acid synthesis
When does the body turn to proteins as a source of energy? 1. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. 2. Presence of excess amino acids from high protein turn-over. 3. Protein rich diet. 4. All of the above are correct. All of the above are correct.
Transamination converts a-ketoglutarate into …. 1. alanine 2. aspartate 3. asparagine 4. glutamine 5. glutamate glutamate
Transaminases are vitamin … dependent. 1. B1 2. B2 3. B3 4. B6 5. B12 B6
Free NH4+ in extrahepatic tissue is carried to the liver as …. 1. Glutamine 2. Glutamate 3. Histidine 4. Proline 5. Asparagine Glutamine
In the urea cycle, carbamoyl phosphate gets combined with … to form … 1. arginine; ornithine 2. ornithine; citrulline 3. citrulline; ornithine 4. citrulline; argininosuccinate ornithine; citrulline
… is only ketogenic (not glucogenic). 1. Cysteine 2. Histidine 3. Tyrosine 4. Valine 5. Lysine Lysine
Cysteine is called a conditionally essential amino acid because 1. Humans cannot synthesize adequate amounts. 2. It’s synthesis relies on the presence of the essential amino acid methionine. 3. It’s synthesis relies on the amino acid serine. It’s synthesis relies on the presence of the essential amino acid methionine.
… is not an essential amino acid. 1. Alanine 2. Valine 3. Histidine 4. Threonine 5. Phenylalanine Alanine
Heme is derived from succinyl-CoA and …. 1. glutamine 2. glutamate 3. glycine 4. alanine glycine
Which signal leads to the slowest response? 1. Neurotransmitter-received by nerve cell 2. Peptide hormone received by liver 3. Cortisol hormone received by adipose tissue Cortisol hormone received by adipose tissue
_________ is the short term (acute) fight or flight hormone. 1. Cortisol 2. Epinephrine 3. Insulin 4. Glucagon Epinephrine
________ is a peptide hormone. 1. Insulin 2. Cortisol 3. Prostaglandin 4. Epinephrine Insulin
Metabolic effects of hormones that bind to membrane receptors occur much faster than those of hormones binding to nuclear receptors. 1. True 2. False True
Which hormone enters the cell and regulates gene expression? 1. insulin 2. glucagon 3. epinephrine 4. cortisol cortisol
NAD+ has an activating effect on _____________. 1. Malate dehydrogenase 2. Succinate dehydrogenase 3. Fumarase 4. Aconitase 5. Pyruvate dehydrogenase Pyruvate dehydrogenase
_____ inhibits a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. 1. Ca2+ 2. NADH 3. CoA 4. ADP 5. Insulin NADH
The activity of the electron transport chain is promoted by _______. 1. Glucose 2. H2O 3. ADP 4. CO2 5. NADH ADP
Brown fat has the primary function of _____________. 1. heat production 2. energy production 3. protein synthesis 4. sleep regulation 5. fat synthesis heat production
Created by: BigSauce on 2013-04-06



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