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Embyro 4 Notes

New info for final

QuestionAnswer
Primordium appears when & where? 4th week in floor of pharyngeal gut epithelium
What descends through the mesenchyme leaving behind the thyroglossal duct? Thyroid diverticulum
The developing thyroid descends anterior to what? and when? Hyoid bone and reaches the front of trachea during the 7th week
Ultimobranchial body is from what pouch? From ventral portion of 4th pouch
What is the ultimobranchial body incorporated into? Into the thyroid (forms C-cells -> thyrocalcitonim -> which decrease blood Ca)
When does thyroid begin to function? End of 3rd month
Foramen cecum of posterior adult is located? At posterior end of median sulcus; sulcus terminalis runs forward and lateral from foramen cecum
What ANOMALIE can form anywhere along the migratory path of thyroid from remnants of thyroglossal duct? Thryoglossal cyst
What ANOMALIE causes the throglossal cyst to open onto anterior surface of neck? Thryoglossal fistula
What anomalie is anywhere along the path of thyroid descent, commonly at base of tongue just behind foramen cecum? Aberrant thyroid tissue
Hypophysis is derived from what two surfaces? Rathke's pouch & Infundibular process
When does Rathke's pouch BEGIN? 3rd week
What is Rathke's pouch? Is an ectodermal evagination from roof of primitive mouth which (Stomodeum) which later loses its connection (loses connection in 8th week)
What happens in the 5th week in Rathke's pouch? Makes contact with the infundibular process -> Adenohypophysis
What is Infundibular process? Neurorectal evagination of the diencephalon -> Neurohypophysis
What MALFORMATION is when small portion of Rathke's pouch remains in roof of pharynx? Pharyngeal hypophysis
What MALFORMATION is a remnant of pouch is intracrainially located, symptoms usually before age 15. Craniopharyngioma (Rathke's pouch tumor)
Components of suprarenal glands? Medsodermal (CORTEX) Neuroectodermal (MEDULLA)
Coelomic mesothelial cells located in groove bw dorsal mesentery & urogenital ridge proliferate and invade underlying mesenchyme during the 5th week, forms what? Fetal cortex
What cells invade fetal cortex from adjacent sympathetic ganglia? Sympathetic cells from chromaffin cells of medulla
Coelomic mesothelial cells give rise to a 2nd cortex called? Permanent cortex
Permanent cortex gives rise in late fetal period to? Zona glomerulosa (present at birth), zona fasciculate (present at birth), and zona reticularis (postnatal 3rd yr)
In the cervical region, intermediate mesoderm form? Nephrotomes (segmented cell clusters)
The medial part of nephrotomes opens into? The intraembryonic coelom
The lateral part of nephrotomes grows? Grows caudally uniting with successive segments to form pronephric duct
What does dorsal aorta form? External & internal glomeruli
What does glomerulus + pronephric tubule = = excretory unit of pronephros
Formation of nephrons in thoracic/lumbar/sacral regions flow chart? Intermediate mesoderm->nephrotomes->nephrotomes fuse->nephrogenic cord->excretory units of mesonephros and metanephros
Names of the 3 kidney systems? Pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros
When do pronephros develop? End of 3rd week through 4th week
Where are pronephros from? First 7-10 nephrotome segments, primarily in cervical region, from segmented nephrotomes, nonfunctional & transitory
When to mesonphros develop? 4th-8th weeks. Develops during: regression of mesonephric system, in lower lumber/scaral regions.
Where are mesonphros from? From the nephrogenic cord
Known as the adult kidney of fishes and amphibians? Mesonphros
What is an urogenital ridge? Longitudinal ridge on posterior abdominal wall formed by gonad & mesonephros
What is an urogenital mesentery? A broad based mesentery which attaches UG ridge to posterior abdominal wall
Regression of mesonephric duct in males? Remains to form ducts of male reproductive system (ductus epididymis, ejact ducts
Regression of mesonephric duct in females? Almost completely disappears
Regression of mesonephros? Most degenerates, a few caudal mesonephric tubules persist and are found in association with ovary & testis
When does metanephros become functional? During 2nd half of pregnancy
What does the collecting system of metanephric develop come from? From ureteric bud
What does the excretory system of metanephric development come from? From metanephric blastema
The cloaca (by urorectal septum) forms? 2 Anorectal canal & primitive urogenital sinus
The primitive urogenital sinus (epithelial endoderm lining) forms what 3 parts? Vesical part, pelvic part, phallic part
What is developed in the vesicle part from the primitive urogenital sinus? Urinary bladder - male & female
What is developed in the pelvic part from the primitive urogenital sinus? Female urethra, male prostatic & membranous urethra
What is developed in the phallic part from the primitive urogenital sinus? Male proximal penile urethra
The endodermal lined allantois constricts and loses its lumen forming a thick fibrous cord called? Urachus
What is the urachus termed in the adult? ? Median umbilical ligament
Where is the ureters from? From mesoderm of ureteric buds
The portion of the mesodermal mesonephric ducts absorbed into the bladder forms? Vesical trigone
In the male, the remaining nonabsorbed parts of mesonephric ducts move? Medially & descend to enter the prostatic urethra.
In the female, the remaining nonabsorbed parts of mesonephric? Regress
What develops as evaginations & proliferations of endodermal epithelium of the prostatic & penile uretheras in MALE? Prostate & bulboureahral glands
What develops as evaginations & proliferations of endodermal epithelium of UG sinus and urethra in FEMALE? Greater vestibular, urethral, paraurethral glands
What happens to the primitive (meduallry) sex cords of the indifferent gonad in the FEMALE? They do NOT remain well defined (as in male) but break up into the IRREGULAR RETE OVARii
What happens to rete ovarii? Later disappears and is replaced by stromal CT forming the OVARIAN MEDULLA
Surface coelomic mesodermal epithelium give rise to? 2nd generation of sex cords, CORITICAL CORDS (they remain close to surface in cortex of ovary)
What happens to the cortical cords in the 4th intrauterine month ? They break up and surround one or more germ cells: germ cells of cords/epithelial cells of cords
Germ cells of cords route? Oogoina->primary oocytes
Epithelial cells of cords route? ->follicular cells
When does the indifferent stage occur? During 6th week
How many pairs of genital ducts does both male and female have? 2
What occurs in early stage of mesonephric (wolffian) ducts? They run from mesonephros to cloaca
What occurs in late stage of mesonephric (wolffian) ducts? Open into UG sinus lateral to PARAMESONEPHRIC TUBERCLE
Where does the paramesonephric (Mullerian) ducts arise from? A longitudinal invagination of the coelomic epithelium on the anterolateral surface of the UG ridge
Derivative of MALE efferent ducts? Mesonephric Excretory Tubules- From epigenital tubules (near CENTER pole of testis)
Derivative of MALE paradidymis? Mesonephric Excretory Tubules- From paragential tubles (near CAUDAL pole of testis)
Derivative of MALE appendix testis? Paramesonephric duct- From very small cranial part of duct
Derivative of MALE colliculus seminalis? UG sinus- From paramesonsphric tubercle of sinus wall
Dervivative of MALE utriculus prostaticus? UG sinus - Probably develops as an outpocketing from wall of UG sinus
Derivative of FEMALE epoophoron? Mesonephric Excretory Tubules- Located in mesosalphinx bw ovary and uterine tube
Derivative of FEMALE paroophoron? Mesonephric Excretory Tubules- Located in mesosalphinx bw ovary and uterine tube
Derivative of FEMALE duct of duct of epoophoron (Gartner's)? Mesonephric Duct- May sometimes form a Gartner's cyst in wall of vagina or uterus
Derivative of FEMALE appendix vesiculosa (hydatids of Morgagni)? Mesonephric Duct- pedunculated vesicle near fimbriae
Derivatives within the paramesonephric duct? MUCOSAL PART ONLY: uterine tube, uterus, upper 1/3 of vagina
What derivatives are in the pelvic portion of the UG sinus? (1) part of vestibule (2) hymen (3)lower 2/3 of vagina (4)paraurethral & urethral glands (5)urethra
What derivatives are in the phallic portion of the UG sinus? (1) part of vestibule (2) greater vestibular glands (Bartholins glands)
During development of LOWER 2/3 of vagina, solid epithelial evaginations from UG sinus form? Sinovaginal bulbs->further development produces the VAGINAL PLATE (end of 3rd month)
During development of LOWER 2/3 of vagina, what happens by the 5th month? The vaginal plate forms lumen of definitive lower 2/3rds of vagina
During development of LOWER 2/3 of vagina, the paramesonephric tubercle forms? The HYMEN, which separates vagina from pelvic portion of UG sinus
When is the indifferent stage in external genitalia? 6th week
In cloacal folds, underlying mesenchyme forms? Forms CLOACAL FOLDS during 4th week
Cloacal folds fuse anteriorly to form? Genital tubercle
Urorectal septum (superficially forms perineal body) divides cloacal folds into? (1)Urogenital folds (ANTERIOR to perineal body) and (2)Anal folds (POSTERIOR to perineal body)
Genital (Labioscrotal) swellings develop from? Underlying mesenchyme lateral to urogenital folds
Female genital tubercle forms? Phallus->CLITORIS
Female urogenital folds forms? LABIA MINORA
Female (labioscrotal) swellings forms? LABIA MAJORA
Female urogenital membrane (bw urogenital folds) breaks down forming? Urogenital groove->VESTIBULE
Male genital tubercle forms? Phallus->PENIS
Development of male urogenital folds into proximal penile urethra? Urethral folds->urethral groove(urethral groove closes when urethral folds fuse OVER urethral groove -> PROXIMAL PENILE URETHRA
Male invagination of surface ectoderm at tip of phallus; ectoderm forms solid cord, later cavitates forming ultimately what? DISTAL TIP PENILE URETHRA
The skin of penis that grows over glans is called? PREPUCE (foreskin)
Male genital (labioscrotal) swellings form scrotal swellings which fuse in middle form? SCROTUM
Urogenital mesentery becomes? Mesentery of gonad as mesonephros disapears
Urogenital mesentery CRAINIAL part becomes? Cranial genital ligament- from upper pole of gonad->diaphragm; this ligament disappears in the male
Urogenital mesentery CAUDAL part becomes? Caudal genital ligament- from lower pole of gonad->inguinal canal (2nd month)
Gubernaculum extends from? Caudal pole of gonad to genital (labioscrotal) swelling
Gubernaculum is formed from 3 structures? (1)Caudal genital ligament (2)Mesenchymal band in inguinal canal (3)Mesenchymal Condensation in genital (labioscrotal) swelling
Gobernaculum forms what in the MALE? Gubernaculum testis
Gobernaculum forms what in the FEMALE? Round ligament of uterus & ovarian ligament
T/F Gubernaculum does NOT grow in proportion to the trunk and pelvis? TRUE
Movement of testis? Retroperitoneal & primarily relative
Gubernaculum appears to pull the testis from the posterior abdominal wall to area of? Deep inguinal ring during 2-3rd month
What causes the passage of testis through inguinal canal and into scrotum? Increased pressure (from growth of viscera) and gonadotrophic and androgenic hormones, and probably not by the gubernaculum. **7th month
What happens to processus vaginalis in 3rd month? Follows gubernaculum testis (and lies over it) into the scrotum and pulls muscular and fascial layers with it
Are gubernaculum testis external or internal to the process of vaginalis? EXTERNAL.
What eventually happen to the processus vaginalis in MALES? Components of the process wrap around blood supply, vas deferens, etc of testis thereby forming the coverings of the spermatic cord.
Descent of ovary- Craninal genital ligament forms? Suspensory ligament of ovary
Descent of ovary- Gubernaculum forms? Ovarian ligament & round ligament of uterus
Descent of ovary- Broad ligament forms? Formed by caudal fusion of paramesonephric ducts
Created by: wizdumbslp on 2013-04-04



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