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ANTH 140- Unit 2

out of africa hypothesis homo sapiens evolved in Africa and replaced all other populations
out of africa genetic evidence mtDNA: africa has the greatest time depth (most variation), modern humans are homogeneous, neanderthal is separated by 400,000 years
out of africa skeletal evidence 100,000-200,000 YA homo sapiens in africa and ethiopia
out of africa cultural evidence upper paleolithic was characterized by significant innovation (larger skulls?)
multiregional hypothesis modern humans evolved in all regions of the world simultaneously
multiregional skeletal evidence traits show continuity over time
multiregional cultural evidence stone tool assemblages demonstrate continuity
chatelperronian tools (multiregional)-> arose from mousterian but look like upper paleolithic tools (blades 2x long as they are wide); bone and antler *found with both neanderthals and modern humans
replacement with hybridization assimilation model of out of africa and multiregional-> selection (not replacement) made people modern
consensus of 3 theories modern humans were all over the old worly by 40,000-50,000 YA
6 trends of upper paleolithic higher pop densities, more social gatherings, more stylistic variability in stone artifacts, increased use of bone and antler, personal ornamentation, getting goods from great distances (trade)
upper paleolithic blade technology made blades from a single core: more mass produced
upper paleolithic new tool types (8) fish hooks, eyed needles, harpoons, ropes, nets, lamps, torches composite tools
spearthrower (upper paleolithic) improves power and range over throwing
bow and arrow (upper paleolithic) allowed hunters to carry more projectiles
domesticated dog (upper paleolithic) *tamed, not necessarily domesticated for hunting and pets even in burials
art and decoration- upper paleolithic personal ornamentation, figurines, cave art
big change in upper paleolithic organizational change of the brain
aurignacian (after chatelperonnian) worked bone/antler points, earliest cave art, figurines (anthropomorphic figures) *first time bone was used
gravettian (after aurignacian) known for venus figurines
solutrean (after gravettian) heat treating, thin/big blades (not used- for showing), emerging specialists *probably peopled the new world
magdelenian (after solutrean) reindeer/horse/bison (tamed horses) semi-settled lifestyle (tents/rock shelters) *the most portable art
Dolni Vestonice (time period) Gravettian
Dolni Vesonice housing outdoor structures (some with roofs), outer fence, large bonfire
Dolni Vestonice religion disfigured woman-> goddess? 2300 broken clay figurines
Dolni Vestonice tools loom sticks
Dolni Vestonice burials burial goods (mammoth scapula, lithic artifacts, fox teeth, pigment)
Mezhirich (time period) Magdelenian
Mezhirich housing mammoth bone structures, tool workshops, shells
Mezhirich tools burned mammoth bone, anthropomorphic figurines, map, fishing tools
Mezhirich people hunted mammoth
two types of art portable and mural
portable art was more common at larger sites (more trade)
Venus figurines fertility/pornographic/made by women/sign of god?
symbols on art notches between mood cycle
did people live where they did mural art? no
mural art carefully planned, created over 1000s of years by different people
mural paintings were of animals and hands
Lascaux carnivores in back of cave, prey in big areas, dots (trances?)
Chauvet oldest cave art, animal remains, no drawings of humans
Casquer underwater access to the cave, drawings of animals they saw (not hunted), footprints and torches found
Hunting Magic theory of art drawn to insure the success of the hunt
Fertility theory of art pregnant and baby animals-> to make more food
Art for Art's sake theory of art social bonding/just being artistic
Sahul Australia and New Guinea
Sunda SE islands joined together
Wallace line sharp division of animal species between Sahul and Sunda
Bobongara New Guinea; groundstone waisted axes (to bring down trees), early transition to agriculture
Lake Mungo Region Australia: oldest known cremation, anatomically modern humans, waves of settlement, oldowan type tools
How did people get to Australia? by boat
ice free corridor a space between 2 ice sheets through AK and Canada-> sites in Northern Colorado where sheets ended
to americas by coast hop down the coast from russia or from australia (to south america)
solutrean americans hypothesis from europe along ice flows (old sites on east coast)
Mystery of the First Americas (movie) 9,000 YA male (not current native american)
Beringia region of land that people may have crossed that is now the Bering Strait
Ice-free corridor a space between 2 ice sheets through Alaska and Canada- early sites near Northern Colorado where sheets ended
Dyuktai culture Siberian==> 18,000-12,000 YA- microblades, bifaces, blades (no connection technologically with people of North America)
Timing to Americas by land 13,000 YA (ice free corridor) following animal migrations
Timing to Americas by sea/coast 30,000-14,000 YA hopping down the coast from Russia or from Australia
Solutrean timing to Americas from Europe along ice flows (east coast 17,000-15,000 YA)
Mystery of the First Americans (movie) 9000 YA male, not related to modern Native Americans (they are a later wave of people)
Clovis best known early American culture, fluted points, big game hunters
3 things to look for in North America clear evidence of humans, material in original position, associated materials dated
Pedra Pintata/Monte Verde pre-Clovis in South America
North America Pleistocene extinctions giant sloth, giant bever, horse, camel, mammoth, mastodon, lion, cheetah, short-faced bear
Europe/Asia extinctions mammoth, woolly rhino, cave bear, lion
2 theories of Pleistocene extinctions climate change, overhunting
Mesolithic transition period- prequel to agriculture; ice sheers retreated, sea levels rose, population increases, more sedentary lifestyle
Mesolithic (Africa) middle stone age
Mesolithic (Europe Mesolithic
Mesolithic (North America) Archaic
Mesolithic (Near East) Natufian
Mesolithic geographic changes England became an island, Australia separated, ice melted in N America/Europe, Bering Strait flooded
Mesolithic tool changes smaller, more standardized, reflects different activities/regions
Broad Spectrum Adaptation (Mesolithic) locally available plants and animals that were more abundant and predictable
Mesolithic subsistence changes storage (pits), smaller amounts of food at a time, more plant foods, specialized groups/technologies, mapping on to resources (planning life around them)
Mesolithic life in Europe transition to forest, more coastal use, less art
Affluent foragers (Mesolithic) stayed in one place almost year-round
Archaic life in North America more plant foods, smaller game, cave/rock shelters
Chumash/Koster sites in Archaic (Mesolithic) North America
Poverty Point a series of concentric mounds in Louisiana around a central plaza (complexity)
Agriculture (definition) activities that artificially increase plant food yields and includes herding of animals
Domestication genetic modification from the wild form to one that is more useful to people
Co-evolution people changed plants slowly until the 2 absolutely rely on one another for life
Primary domestication (definition) where domestication first actually occurred
Secondary domestication (definition) where domesticated things were introduced
Primary domestication locations Near East, Mexico, Sub-Saharan Africa, South America, South China, Eastern US, New Guinea
Secondary domestication locations SW North America, Europe
Society before agriculture egalitarian, low population density, no territoriality, minimal/no storage, organized at the family/band level
Society after agriculture social ranking, higher pop density, territoriality, formal storage, increased social organization
Neolithic (North America) New Stone Age
Neolithic (definition) when agriculture comes into use, switch to less complex grinding stones
Çatal Höyük (Turkey)==> hunting/gathering with agriculture (slow switch), buried dead under houses, rectangular flat-roofed houses with doorways in the ceiling, decoration/hearths in the houses
Çatal Höyük religion ¼ of all rooms excavated==> wild ox imagery/female statues
Çatal Höyük subsistence barley, peas, wheat, almonds, acorns, pistachios
Çatal Höyük trade caches of obsidian tools, shells, copper, crafts, textiles (substantial trade)
Çatal Höyük burials contain trade and gender-specific items (under their homes)
Çatal Höyük age of death 30-34 (younger than Paleolithic)==> cavities, arthritis, disease, bad nutrition
The Global Neolithic Pattern large settlements, more complex, widely scattered and independent (almost none turned into cities)
Megaliths tombs that indicate territory
Passage graves mound over central tomb, passage into it (a type of megalith)
Gallery graves upright stones capped w/ larger stone over graves (a type of megalith)
Cyclic consequence of agriculture more food requires more work, storage becomes essential, heavier tools
Consequences of agriculture cyclic necessity, more work, more disease, increased warfare over land
form/blank Upper Paleolithic; made when making blades- can be shaped into many different tools
loess wind-blown silt deposited from the melting and blowing of salt from ice sheets
solifluction freezing and thawing of the ground resulting in slippage of the surface
red ochre a red mineral used in pigmentation
Lascaux II a museum to view reconstruction of Lascaux art
hands/mural art fingers are missing in most portrayals
Pincevent living floors, flint knapping (Upper Paleolithic France)
Abri Blanchard bone 69 semi-circular marks (moon cycles?)
cultivation clearing fields, preparing soil, protecting plants, providing water
oasis hypothesis domestication began as a symbiotic relationship between humans, plants, and animals during desication of SW Asia
natural habitat hypothesis earliest domesticates appeared where their ancestors lived
population pressure hypothesis agriculture was a last resort
edge hypothesis population pressure + where food was less abundant
social hypothesis food surplus= rare stones/social alliances
quern a stone grinding tool for preparing grains and other plant foods
fertile crescent zone in SW asia that reflects the variety of plants and animals that can thrive there
Abu Hureyra a site in the Fertile Crescent (later abandoned like most sites)
flotation to find plant remains (float to the top of a solution)
Mehrgarh South Asia- changed from hunter gatherer to agricultural
Ban-po-ts'un China (Neolithic) kilns, spindles
Khok Phandom Di rice
Tehucacan maize
Guitarrero Cave domestication in the high Andes
winding road to human man article Europeans and Melanesians have neanderthal DNA
A New View of the Birth of Homo Sapiens article some archaic genes, but Africans do have the most diverse genome
Refuting a Myth about Human Origins article archaic homo sapiens may have never existed
Women of the Ice Age article women brought home most calories and aided in hunting
Woman the Toolmaker (alive now) women scraping hides in Ethiopia
Children of Prehistory fingerpainting throughout time
Disease and Death at Dr. Dickson's Mounds agriculture led to disease and earlier deaths in North America
Created by: melaniebeale