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CAE exam

Bottom up federation An arrangement among contingent federations giving the local organization a primary role in enrolling members, providing the focus for programming, or collecting dues for upward distribution. Dues are collected at the local level and distributed to the la
Contingent Membership Arrangements An arrangement between an organization and its chapters that requires members to belong to two or more levels of the organization
Contract A voluntary between two or more individuals or entities that creates a binding relationship between or among them. Three essential elements: 1. Offer 2. Acceptance 3. Consideration
Federation An association composed of a group of other associations representing professionals, businesses or industries with a common interest
Horizontal Association Serves one functional level of an industry or profession
Mission Defines “what” an organization will do. A statement of the purposes for the association’s existence that defines its underlying design and thrust; often expressed in programs, services, values or membership terms
Three-tiered organization A structure in which local associations join their state associations, and the state associations join the national.
Top Down Federation An arrangement among the contingent federations giving the national a primary role in enrolling members, providing the focus for downward distribution. The national collects dues and passes them down to the local or state organizations.
Liquidity ratio Measures the organization’s ability to pay its short-term obligations.
Profitability ratio Measures the profits (losses) over a specified period of time. The use of this ratio in evaluating nonprofit organizations is often questioned; however, profitability is just as important to nonprofits as it is to for-profit enterprises.
Coverage ratio Measures the projection for the interest and principal payments to long-term creditors and investors.
Activity ratios Measures how efficiently the organization is employing its assets.
L-A-I principle L – Linkage. Any link, contact, bridge, or access through a peer to a potential donor. A – Ability. Whether the potential donor has the ability – sufficient financial holdings – to make a contribution. I – Interest. The potential donor’s interest
Annual Fund The cornerstone of many fund-raising programs, this generates money for ongoing support and seeks to enroll new donors, renew donations, and upgrade the level of donation. Individuals are the primary contributors. Contributors typically support current
Capital Campaign These large gifts are typically sought as part of an intensive and carefully orchestrated effort aimed at constructing or renovating a building or purchasing equipment. “Bricks and mortar” campaign, this fundraising appeal runs for a scheduled period of
Planned Gifts Refers to the solicitation of gifts from current asset holdings or a person’s estate. It can be cash or assets, such as stock certificates, real or personal property, or insurance bequests. The contributor makes the gift as a trust, contract, or gift.
Endowment The principal is invested for the long term, and the interest earned is used to support a specific cause or program; funds from an endowment may be restricted or unrestricted. While cap. Campaign is intensive and short-term, this kind of campaign can be
Sex and Family Arrangements - May Ask & May Discriminate By Asking May ask: If applicant has relatives already employed by the organization. May not ask: Sex of applicant, # of children, marital status, spouse’s occupation, child care arrangements, health care coverage through spouse
Interview Questions Race – May Ask May not ask: Applicant’s race or color of skin Photo to be affixed to application form
Interview Questions National Origin or Ancestry – May Ask May Ask: *Whether applicant has a legal right to be employed in the U.S. *Ability to speak/write English fluently (if job related) *Other languages spoken (if job-related)
Interview Questions Religion – May Ask & May Discriminate By Asking May Not Ask: Religious affiliation/Avail. For weekend work Religious holidays observed
Interview Questions National Origin or Ancestry – May Discriminate By Asking Ethnic assoc. of a surname *Birthplace of applicant or app’s parents *Nationality, lineage, nat. origin *Nationality of app’s spouse *Whether app. is citizen of another country *App’s native tongue/English proficiency *Maiden name (of married woman)
Interview Questions Age – May Ask & May Discriminate By Asking May ask: If app. is over age 18, if app. is over age 21 if job-related (i.e. bartender) May not ask: Date of Birth, Date of H.S. grad., Age
Interview Questions Disability – May Ask & May Discriminate By Asking May Ask: Whether app. can perform the essential job-related functions. May Not Ask: *If app. has a disability * nature or severity of a disability *whether app. has ever filed a workers’ comp. claim *recent or past surgeries and dates *past medical
Interview Questions Other – May Ask May Ask: *Convictions if job-related *Academic, vocational, or professional schooling *Training received in the military *Membership in any union, trade, or professional association *Job references
Interview Questions Other – May Discriminate By Asking May Not Ask: *Number and kinds of arrests *Height or weight except if a bona fide occupational qualification *Veteran status, discharge status, branch of service *Contact in case of an emergency (at application or interview stage)
Publicity An uncontrollable part of public relations. It disseminates information through selected media based on the information’s news value and without payment. In the extreme, publicity becomes press agentry, with the sole purpose of getting the client’s name
Advertising Paid, one-directional communication, based largely on appeals to the emotions. P.R. uses both intellectual and emot. appeals. Advertising is totally controlled: The association selects the media, timing, placement, freq. of repetition, and so forth.
Marketing A one-way communication process. It motivates publics to purchase goods, services, ideas, based on a quid pro quo exchange with the marketing org (for example, I provide you with a car; you give me money or sign a financial agreement)
Promotion Includes special events and activities designed to create interest in a person, product, org, or cause
Public Affairs The govt’s name for public relations. When applied to corps, it concerns corporate citizenship and public policy issues.
Government Relations Concerns dealings and communications with all three branches of government
Community Relations Communicates with the citizens and groups within an organization’s area of operation
Media Relations Deals with the press. It involves obtaining media coverage for the association and its agenda and facilitating access of the press to the group’s sources of information
Industry Relations Focuses on communicating with other companies within the industrial sector of the organization
Lobbying Directly attempts to influence legislative and regulatory decisions of government
5 Key Components of a Marketing Plan 1. Introduction 2. Business Summary 3. Research 4. Marketing strategies and projections 5. Monitoring and evaluation techniques
Creating a Standards Program 9 Steps 1. Form a standards committee 2. Environmental Scan 3. Est. program objectives 4. Draft initial standards 5. Call for comments 6. Review the comments 7. Obtain Approval 8. Test the standards 9. Finalize the results
Research Technique: Mail Relative Cost – Low Length of Time – Long Response Rate –Low Respondent Confidentiality – High Complexity of Q’s – Moderate Potential for Interviewer Bias – Low
Research Technique: Telephone Relative Cost – Moderate Length of Time – Short Response Rate – High Respondent Confidentiality – Low Complexity of Q’s – Low Potential for Interviewer Bias – Moderate
Research Technique: Individual Interviews Relative Cost – High Length of Time – Long Response Rate – Moderate Respondent Confidentiality – None Complexity of Q’s – High Potential for Interviewer Bias – High
Research Technique: Focus Groups Relative Cost – Moderate Length of Time – Short Response Rate – High Respondent Confidentiality – None Complexity of Questions – High Potential for Interviewer Bias – Moderate
Population The total group you want to gather information about
Sampling frame The actual source of names used to select the sample
Simple random sample A sample in which each person in the population has an equal chance of being selected
Systematic or Nth Sample Choosing every Nth record in a list to develop a sample
Stratified Sample Requires that you divide the population into smaller groups of people with similar characteristics and draw a separate sample from each group.
Non-probability sample Not everyone has the same chance of being selected. An example is a group of people attending a meeting. convenience sample
Quota Sampling Selecting records until a predetermined quota is reached.
Confidence level A measure of how representative the sample is of the total population.
Level of Error The variation in responses between the sample and the entire population.
Pareto’s Law The 80/20 Rule
Link Relative method Used in estimating the total size of an industry. Linking one period time with a previous period and benchmarking them to independent estimates of the industry.
Load Factoring Used in estimating the total size of an industry. Requires the identification of all companies within the industry that don’t participate in the survey and have the respondents estimate the size of each non-participating company.
Publicity Uncontrollable part of public relations. News.
Advertising Paid, one directional communication, based largely on appeals to emotion.
Marketing One directional communication motivating publics to purchase goods, services, or ideas based on a quid pro quo exchange.
Promotion Special events and activities designed to create interest in a person, product, organization or cause.
Industry Relations Communicating with other companies within the industrial sector aligned with the association.
5 components of a marketing plan 1. Introduction 2. Business Summary 3. Research 4. Marketing strategies and projections 5. Monitoring and evaluation techniques
9 steps to creating a standards program 1. Form a standards cmte 2. Conduct an environmental scan 3. Establish program objectives 4. Draft initial standards 5. Call for comments 6. Review comments 7. Obtain approval from board 8. Test the standards 9. Finalize the results
Chapter Group, organization or association that has some formal relationship with a parent organization and has jurisdiction over a geographic area.
Affiliated Group Autonomous organization that has some formal relationship with a parent organization
Coalition Alliance among or between organizations, usually focused around a single, well-defined issue or concern.
Combination association Organization composed of at least two types of memberships (individuals, firms, and/or associations)
Council Group, organization or association that has jurisdiction over an area of interest.
Reciprocal Membership Arrangement between an umbrella organization and a chapter in which membership is not mandatory at all levels.
Special interest section Group or organization (but not an association) that operates with a limited amount of autonomy and has jurisdiction over an area of professional or business interest.
A job description should contain 1. Summary of position 2. Essential job functions 3. Nonessential job functions 4. Knowledge, Skills and abilities required 5. Supervisory responsibilities 6. Working conditions 7. Minimum qualifications 8. Success factors
Federal Labor Laws for companies with 1 or more employees  Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)  Immigration Reform & Control Act  Uniformed Services Employment & Re-employment Rights Act  Equal Pay Act  National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)  Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)  Uniform Guideli
Federal Labor Laws for companies with 11 or more employees Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA)
Federal Labor Laws for companies with 15 or more employees Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) Civil Rights Act of 1991 Title I Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
Federal Labor Laws for companies with 20 or more employees  Age Discrimination in Employment Act  Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA)
Federal Labor Laws for companies with 50 or more employees  Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA)  EEO-1 Report filed annually with EEOC if Organization is a Federal Contractor
Federal Labor Laws for companies with 99 or more employees Worker Adjustment & Retraining Notification Act of 1989 EEO-1 report filed annually with EEOC if organization is not a Federal Contractor
Federal Reporting Requirements Payroll Income Taxes, Federal Unemployment Taxes, Social Security Taxes FORMS: 990, 941, 942, 943, 1099, W-2, W-4
Federal Reporting Requirements Benefits ERISA requires summary plan descriptions and annual reports on employee benefits offered FORMS Form 5500 Series, 990 series, PBGC forms and others
Federal Reporting Requirements Equal Employment Opportunity Must file the appropriate EEO form indicating employment by covered categories; federal contractors have similar requirements FORMS EEO-1 or similar; also VETS-100 for federal contractor
Federal Reporting Requirements Health & Safety OSHA requires employers to verbally report incidents of death or multiple-employee hospitalization. Selected employers must complete and file an annual survey of occupational injuries and illnesses. FORMS BLS-9300
Vertical Association Serves all functional areas of an industry or profession.
Due Process for Expulsion 1. Notice of intention to proceed against the member 2. Recital of the charges or accusation 3. Notice of a fair and impartial hearing 4. Opportunity to examine evidence and cross-examine witnesses 5. Opportunity to refute all charges 6. Right to co
Form 990 An association that exceeds gross annual income of $25,000 must file.
Form 990-EZ Associations with gross revenues under $100,000 and total assets under $250,000 can file a form 990-EZ
Reasonable Standards and Fair Procedures for an Expulsion of a Member 1. Willful violation of code of ethics 2. For cause upon 2/3 vote by the board 3. Failure to pay dues 4. Member no longer meets bylaws definition of membership
Examples of Reasonable Membership Qualifications  Minimum size in terms of sales, employees, production, etc.  Minimum percentage amounts of total business to be in profession  Minimum number of years in business or trade  Requisite educational background or achievement  Membership available on
Reasons for Using a Subsidiary Corporation 1. Protect the associations exempt status 2. Facilitate joint ownership in property 3. Insulate the association from liability 4. Enable an association to properly reflect income from an activity 5. Aid in reducing taxable income
Unrelated Business Income Tax The income must be: 1. From a trade or business 2. That is regularly carried on and 3. That is not substantially related to the purposes for which the organization was granted tax exemption
Issues Management The process of identifying issues, analyzing them, setting priorities, selecting program strategy options, implementing a program of action and communication, and evaluating effectiveness
Visioning A commitment to rethinking and reviewing the organization; holistic image; a statement of what an association’s members want to create over the next ten years; creating and inspiring vision energizes members and builds their investment in the organization
Annual Rate Change Calculates the dues rate every year; often tied to an economic indicator, such as the consumer price index
Association Reserves Net assets minus net liabilities
Audit A series of procedures followed by a CPA to test transactions and internal controls, all with a view of forming an opinion on the fairness of the presentation of the financial statements
Capital Budget Expenditures for long-term assets such as land, buildings, or equipment, including depreciation
Cash Budget Derived from the operating budget to determine when budgeted revenue items will be received and when expenses will be paid
Directors and Officers Liability Insurance Management or governance errors and omissions coverage that provides resources in the event that a director or officer is accused of mismanagement of the organization
Management Letter A auditors report to association management providing additional guidance and observations about the association’s financial policies and practices
Net Assets Residual value of the association after liabilities have been paid. Contains three classes: unrestricted net assets, temporarily restricted net assets, and permanently restricted net assets.
Property and Casualty Insurance Covers buildings an the content of buildings as well as accidental bodily injury and personal injury or accidental property damage to another’s property
Statement of Activities A statement that shows the organization’s financial activities from the beginning to end of the year. There are two sections: revenue, expenses, and non-expendable additions; and changes in net assets.
Statement of Cash Flows A statement that shows where the organization received and spent its cash
Statement of Financial Position A statement that summarizes the financial makeup of the organization at a point in time, where the capital comes from. Shows assets and liabilities and provides a snapshot of the organization.
Advertising Income A tax-exempt periodical containing advertising is performing both exempt and non-exempt activities. Therefore, a periodical’s advertising net income is taxable to the extent that it exceeds circulation costs.
Financial Policies 1. Clear lines of authority 2. Clear definition and acceptance of responsibility 3. Authority commensurate with responsibility 4. Proper training
Essential Factors for Good Internal Financial Controls  Investment  Spending  Operating and Capitalization
Performance Management Three essential aspects: 1. Goal setting 2. Day-to-day coaching 3. Performance appraisal
Reasonable Accommodation According to the Americans with Disabilities Act accommodation that the essential functions of the job can be accomplished and that would not impose and undue hardship on the organization. These include: 1. making facilities accessible, 2. restructuring
Right to Employment 1. Protects employees who are terminated in retaliating for performing some public obligation, such as jury duty 2. Protects employees who are terminated for refusing to perform and illegal or unethical act. 3. Covers termination in retaliation for an e
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs High Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Low Physiological
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X assumes that people are lazy and control must be exerted to get them to work effectively. Theory Y assumes that people are creative and enjoy work.
Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory focuses on the maturity or readiness of followers. Situational leadership requires adjusting the leaders emphasis on task behaviors and relationship behaviors according to the readiness of followers to perform their tasks.
Sarbanes Oxley Considerations for Associations 1. Cannot destroy a document with the intent to obstruct justice or influence an investigation. 2. Whistle-blower protections make it a crime for anyone to interfere with the lawful employment or livelihood of an individual for providing truthful informa
Current Ratio To calculate the ratio, divide total current assets by total current liabilities. This is a prime measure of how solvent a company is.
Depreciation Accounts for the diminishing value of an asset as time goes by
Direct Costs Costs that are directly attributable to the manufacturer of a product
Indirect Cost Cannot be directly attributed to a particular product
Fixed cost Remain constant despite sales volume; they include interest expense, rent, depreciation, and insurance.
Variable cost Are incurred in relation to sales volume; examples include cost of materials and sales commissions.
GAAP The rules and conventions that accountants follow in recording and summarizing transactions and preparing financial statements.
Operating ratios Provides an assessment of a company’s operating efficiency. Examples: 1. Days receivables, 2. Days payables, 3. Current Ratio, 4. Quick Ratio
Quick ratio Measure of a company’s assets that can be quickly liquidated and used to pay debts. To calculate, divide cash, receivables, and marketable securities by current liabilities
Working Capital A measure of a business’ ability to pay its financial obligations. The difference between a company’s current assets and its current liabilities.
501 (H) Election Safe harbor for 501 (C) (3) lobbying expenditures
Elements of Contracts 1. Mutual assent, an offer is made and accepted 2. Competent parties, have legal authority to commit their respective organizations 3. Consideration, the price 4. Mutuality, a mutual obligation on the part of both parties 5. Enforceable, must be in wr
The Maple Flooring Case A 1925 Supreme Court case on the legality of association statistical programs
Hydrolevel Case A Supreme Court case applying the apparent authority doctrine to association anti-trust
Elements of a Strategic Plan 1. Mission statement 2. Vision statement 3. Broad goals 4. Objectives 5. Strategies
SMART Specific Measurable Attainable Relevant Time-based
Herzberg Two Factor Theory Hygiene factors 1. Need to avoid unpleasantness a. Company policy compensation, quality of supervision, job security Motivator factors 1. Need for personal growth a. Status recognition, responsibility, stimulating work, sense of personal achievement
Lobbying Registration Requirements Organization must register if 1. Twenty percent of at least one individual’s time is spent lobbying 2. Organization spends more than $22,500 semi-annually Must register no later than 45 days after first lobbying contact is made.
PAC Contribution Limit Individuals may contribute up to $5,000 annually
Four P’s of Marketing Product Price Place Promotion
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