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Developmental L2

Physical growth

Child brain is __% of adult brain weight by 6 years 90%
How do brains become bigger? (1) Because of more neurons or (2) Because neurons grow larger or (3) because neurons increase their connections?? (2) and (3). NOT (1)
What is this defining? "growth of axonal and dendritic fibres" Synaptogenesis
Does the process of synaptognesis increase or decline as we get older? Declines
Look at notes at Curvilinear Trend in Synaptic Density. What does it show? That when we are younger and when we are older we have less synaptic density
An old idea about the brain is that brain circuitry(connections) is pre-determined by DNA. What is the new idea for this? = That brain connections are determined through....? Through interaction with the world - our experience
In the brain there is an initial ______production of synapses and this gives us a kind of readiness to learn. The brain has been primed for learning overproduction
So initially our brains have an overproduction of synapses and then.....this experience guides the development of the brain because certain synapses are p__________ and others are s_______________ pruned, strengthens
Another example of how experience effects the brain...the brain needs to be exposed to certain kinds of input to be able to eventually produce that input. ....
Cortisol production interferes with the neural/brains development. Cortisol is a h__________. Children who receive nurturing care in their first year are (less or more?) likely to respond to minor stresses by producing _________. less, cotrisol
So production of cortisol (from nurturing care) provides a form of protection - as it is helping them cope with ______ later in life stress
At age two, a childs brain has twice as many synapses as an adult brain. True or false? False, its actually at age three
The number of synapses we have then stays steady for the next decade (10years) so some synapses __________ and others _________ but the overall number holds steady increase, decrease
There are fewer changes in more hard-wired areas of the brain such as the brain stem - this is one of the first areas to evolve with evolution ....
Where do the most dramatic changes in synapse development take place? In the cerebral cortex
What is this referring to? "getting rid of synapses that are not helpful" Synaptic pruning
There is an incredible rate of synaptic pruning during the _________ decade of life second
An old idea about the brain is that experiences before 3 years have limited impact. What is the new idea? That early experiences do influence the brain - the architecture of the brain and the nature and extent of adult capabilities.
Years ago in Romani, many children were neglected, physically and sexually abused etc. Years later their brain scans were compared with normal children's. A PET scan of child at 9.5 years shows ____ activity of a normal child. less
An old idea about the brain is that brain development is linear, slowly progressing towards adulthood. What is the new idea for this? And why does this mean we need a good environment when younger. That brain development is non-linear - there are prime times for acquiring difference kinds of knowledge - early childhood being the biggest prime time. So therefore we need a good environment at that point.
Look at graph in notes to answer the following question...in the visual cortex there is a peak in synapse density at ____ year old and in the prefrontal cortex there is a peak at _____ years old one, four
In the first year of life there is major development in the _______ cortex (which controls body movement), in the v______ cortex and in the hippocampus (important for m_________) motor, visual, memory
Which part of the brain has slower development? And which part of the brain has possibly even later development? The prefrontal cortex, the frontal cortex
What is the timing of formation of myelination in different areas? First occurs in sensory cortex --> then motor cortex --> then frontal cortex
Myelination is not complete until adolescents and possible even early adulthood! true or false? True
Why is myelination important? Because it speeds up the transmission of information in the brain
What is the extreme illness caused by lack of myelination? Multiple Sclerosis
An old idea of the brain is that a toddler's brain is much less active than the brain of a university student. What is the new idea for this? By the time children are 3 years old, their brains are twice as active as those of adults. Activity levels drop during adolescence because we are losing synapses.
Children are primed for learning. Read over the reasons why this is... ...
Glucose metabolic rate increases until about 9 years if age and then begins to decline in adulthood in the _________ decade of life second
What three things does the brain need? Nourishment, Care and Surroundings (stimulation - new things, new language etc)
Study the feedback loop diagram in notes ....
Malnutrition directly effects brain development. What else does malnutrition do? Read and write out study notes .....
Study the graph with 'Brain and Weight Across the Lifespan'
The physical changes that take place during adolescence/puberty are controlled by the h___________? Hypothalamus
The timing of puberty is dependent on things such as h_______(genes), g______ and n__________ heredity, gender, nutrition
Who goes through puberty earlier - girls or boys? girls
Girls and boys reach puberty before they used to. True or false? True
What is one of the key components that seem to be involved in the way puberty is hitting children earlier? Nutrition - we are supplied with more nutrition than we used to be years ago - better acces to meat and milk products
The peak of puberty being 12 years old is for what gender? And the peak being 14 to 15 years old is for what gender? Girls, Boys
Study the various subcomponents of timing of puberty .....
What does Menarche refer to? Getting your period
The adolescent brain continues to develop until 22-25 years old. The areas of the greatest development during adolescence are the pre_______ cortex, C________ C______ and the c___________ Prefrontal cortex, Corpus Callosum and the Cerebellum
Adolescence is a time of "fewer but ______" neural connections. faster
Created by: alicemcc33