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Chabner Chapter 5

The Digestive System (Pathology)

TermDefinition
Anorexia Lack of appetite.
Ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
Borborygmus (plural: borborygmi) Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract.
Constipation Difficulty in passing stools (feces).
Diarrhea Frequent passage of loose, watery stools.
Dysphagia Difficulty in swallowing.
Eructation Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth.
Flatus Gas expelled through the anus.
Hematochezia Passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum.
Jaundice (icterus) Yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia).
Melena Black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood.
Nausea Unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit.
Steatorrhea Fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter.
Aphthous stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers.
Dental caries Tooth decay.
Herpetic stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpesvirus.
Oral leukoplakia White plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth.
Peridontal disease Inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone.
Achalasia Failure of the lower esophagus spincter (LES) muscle to relax.
Esophageal cancer Malignant tumor of the esophagus.
Esophageal varices Swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus.
Gastric cancer Malignant tumor of the stomach.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach.
Hernia Protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it.
Peptic ulcer Open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
Anal fistula Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus.
Colonic polyps Polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous membranes of the colon.
Colorectal cancer Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both.
Crohn disease (Crohn's) Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract (terminal ileum and colon).
Diverticulosis Abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall.
Dysentery Painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infection.
Hemorrhoids Swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region.
Ileus Loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines.
Intussusception Telescoping of the intestines.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension.
Ulcerative colitis Chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers.
Volvulus Twisting of the intestine on itself.
Cholelithiasis Gallstones in the gallbladder.
Cirrhosis Chronic degenerative disease of the liver.
Pancreatic cancer Malignant tumor of the pancreas.
Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas.
Viral hepatitis Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus.
Created by: Nicole Smith Nicole Smith on 2013-03-21



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