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chapters1 -5 A&P

test review

what is pathology the study of disease
what are signs & symptoms the way a diseasae is diagnosed
what are signs of a disease objective abnormalities
what are symptoms of a disease what the person tells you(subjective)
what is syndrome different signs & symptoms, with a common cause
what is a disease characteristic set of signs and symptoms
What is acute disease one felt over a short period
what is chronic disease one over 6 months
what is subacute disease one between acute and chronic
what is etiology study of the cause/origin of a disease
what is idiopathic diseases with undetermined causes
what are communicable/infecctious diseases can be transferred from i to another
what are pathogens pattern of a disease's development
what is incubation the latent stage in infectious disease
what is convalescence recovery
what is remission temporary reversal of symptoms in a chronic disease
what is epidemiology the study of the occurence, distribution, and transmission of diseases in humans
what is endemic the disease is within a local region
what is epidemic the disease is within a region
what is pandemic the disease is worldwide
why is tracking the etiology and pathogens of a disease difficult differnt factors like nutrition,age,gender, sanitation practices, socioeconomic conditions
how can one explain the pathogenesis of a disease casual or coincidental relationships
What are the 2 strategies of fighting a disease therapy(treatment) and prevention(vaccination)
what is therapy treatment
what is pathophysiology study of the underlying physiological processes associated with the disease
what is meant by the basic mechanisms of a disease the disturbance of homeostatis and the body's responses to that disturbance
what are the 7 basic mechanisms of a disease a-genetic, b-infectious,c-neoplastic, d-traumatic, e- metabolic, f-inflammatory, g- deganaration
what is genetic mechanism altered/mutated genes can cause production of abnormal proteins
what is infectious mechanism disease-causing organisms that damage the body, eg parasite
what is neoplastic mechanism abnormal tissue growths(neoplasm-tumors) and cancers
what is traumatic mechanism physical(fractures,laceration)and chemical agents like toxic or destructive chemicals, extreme heat or cold, mechanical injury(trauma), radiation
what is metabolic mechanism endocrine imbalances of malnutrition that cause insufficient or imbalanced nutrient intake
what is inflammatory mechanism a-autoimmunity(self)faulty response or overreaction of the immune system that attack the body b.inflammation-normal mechanism that usually speeds recovery from an infection/injury, but when the response occurs at inappropitae times or is prolonged or sev
what is degeneration breaking apart of tissues by unknown means
what are risk factors predisposing conditions
what are the 6 categories of risk factor 1.genetic,2.age,3.lifestyle4.stress,5.environmental factors,6.preexisting conditions
what are microbes tiny organisms that cannot be seen by the unaided eye.
what are the main microbes viruses,prions,bacteria,fungi,protozoa
what are viruses intracellular parasites that consist of a DNA & RNA core surrounded by a coat and oftena lipoprotein envelop. they are nonliving but have a genetic code and multiply
what are prions pathgenic protein moleculesthat convert normal proteins of the body into abnormal proteins
what are bacteria tiny, primitive cell without a nucleus
how are bacteria classified 1.growth requirements(aerobic&nonaerobic)2.staining properties(gram-positive are stained purple or violet while gram-negative are red)3.shape & size(less than um0.5 to more than 5um.um =micrometers or microns, one millionth of a meter.
what are examples of pathogenic bacteria 1.bacilli 2. cocci3. curved or spiral rod 4. small bacterium
what are bacilli large rod-shaped found singly or in groups
what do bacilli cause anthrax,gastroenteritis,botulism,tetanus,salmonella,swimmer's ear,endocarditic,pulmonary infections
what are cocci large,round bacteria found singly, in pairs(diplococci),in strings(streptococci), or in clusters(straphylococci
what do cocci cause staphylococci infections,food poisoning,UTI,toxic shock syndrome,throat binfection,pneumonia,sinusitis,otitis media,rheumatic fever,dental caries,meningitis,gonorrhea,pelvic inflammatory disease
what are curved or spiral rods curved rods arranged arranged singly or in strands, or large curved or spiral cells arranged singly or in cell colonies
what do curved or spiral rods cause cholera,gastroentetitis,wound infection,diarrhea,syphilis,lyme disease
what are small bacteria round or oval and can reproduce only inside other living cells, thus called obligate intracellular parasites
what are the 2 types of bacteria rickettsia & chlamydia
what do small bacteria cause rocky mountain spotted fever,and Q fever,genital infection,conjunctivitis,pelvic inflammatory disease,lymphogranuloma venereum,parrot fever
what are spores resistant dormant forms that some bacteria can develop
what are archaea a microbe similar to bacteria, but can thrive in extremely hot, acid, or salty environments
what are fungi group of simple organisms similar to plants but no chlrophyll, so cannot produce food.
where do fungi normally live on or near the skin or mucous membrane,as in athlete's foot,and vaginal yeast infections
what are yeasts smaLL SINGLE-CELLED FUNGI
what are molds large multicellular fungi
why are fungal or myotic infections a serious health problem they resist treatment
what do candida organisms cause thrush and mucous membrane infections(including vaginal yeast infections)
what do epidermophyton and microsporum cause ringworm,jock itch,athlete's foot
what do hisplasma cause hispolasmosis
what do aspergillus cause aspergillosis and pneumonia
what do coccidioides cause coccidioidomycosis(san Joaquin fever)
what are protozoa protists one-celled organisms that are larger than bacteria and whose DNA is organized in a nucleus.
what are the pathogenic protozoa 1.amoebas,2.flagellates,3.ciliates,4.sporozoa
what are amoebas large cells of changing shape. they extend their membranes to form (pseudopodia)false feet that pull themselves along
what do amoebas cause diarrhea,amebic dysentry,and liver and lung infections
what are flagellates similar to amoeba but move by wiggling long,whiplike extensions called flagella
what do flagellates cause giardiasis,diarrhea,and malabsorption syndrome
what are ciliates protozoa that move by means of many short,hairlike projections called cilia
what do ciliates cause gastrointestinal disturbances, including pain, nausea, and anorexia
what are sporozoa(coccidia) protozoa with unusal organelles at their tips that allow them to enter host cells.
what are metazoa pathogenic animals
what are the pathogenic animals 1.nematodes,2.platyhelminths,3.anthropods
what are nematodes large parasites also called roundworms, often transmitted by food or flies that bite
what do nematodes cause intestinal roundworm,GI obstruction,bronchial damage, pinworm infestation, lower GI tract, itching around the anus,insomnia,trichinosis,fever,muscle pain
what are platyhelminths large parasites aka flatworms and flukes
what do platyhelminths cause schistosomiasis(snail fever),liver fluke infestation,pork and beef tapeworm infestation
what are anthropods group of parasites that include mites,ticks,lice,fleas,wasps,bees,mosquitoes,spiders. they can cause injury or infestation and can also carry other pathogenic organisms
what do anthropods cause infestation by mites and ticks;toxic bites by spiders, scorpions;and transmission of other pathogens,infestation by fleas and lice;toxic bites by wasps,mosquitoes,and bees;
what is a vector an organism that spreads disease to other organisms
what are the modes of transmission person-to-person,environmental,opportunistic invasion,by a vector
what are the common aseptic methods that prevent the spread of pathogen sterilization,disinfection,antisepsis,isolation
what prevention strategy has worked with some bacterial and viral pathogens vaccination
when an infection has begun,what common approach is used to destroy the pathogens antibiotics
what are neoplasms abnormal growth of cells, or tumors
what are the 2 classification of tumors benign and malignant
what is benign tumor they remain localized within the tissue from which they arose;they are usually encapsulated and grow slowly
what are malignant tumors these are cancer and are not encapsulated and do not stay in one place.
what is metastasis the migration of cells by way of the lymphatic or blood vessels
what benign tumors arise from epithelial tissues 1.papilloma,2.adenoma,3nevus,
what benign tumors arise from connective tissues 1.lipoma,2.osteoma,3.chondroma
what malignant tumors arise from epithelial tissues(carcinomas) 1.melanoma,2.adenocarcinoma
what malignant tumors arise from connective tissues(sarcomas) 1.lymphoma,2.osteosarcoma,3.myeloma,4.fibrosarcoma
what is hyperplasia produce too many cells
what is anaplasia growth nof abnormal cells
what are oncogenes cancer genes
what causes cancer 1.genetic factors,2.carcinogens(cancer makers),3.age,4.environment,5.viruses
what are oncologists cancer specialists
what methods are used to detect presence of cancer 1.self-examination,2.diagnostic imaging like radiography, Computed tomography(CT)scanning,magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),biopsy(removal and examination of living things,blod test
what is staging classifying a tumor based on size and the extent of its spread
what is grading an assessment of what the tumor is likely to do based on the degree of cell abnormality
what is cachexia a syndrome involving loss of appetite, severe weight loss,and general weakness
when tissue cells are damaged, what inflammation mediators do they release histamine,prostaglandins,kinins
what is inflammatory exudate the fluid that accumulates in inflamed tissue
what are the principal organs of the integumentary system skin(includes hair,nails,glands)
what are the principal organs of the endocrine the glands,pancreatic islets,ovaries,testes
what is the main function of the integumentary system protection
what are ligaments bands of fibrous connective tissue that help hold bones together
what are joints connections between 2 or more bones
what is a cartilage connection between one bone and another
what is the main function of the skeleton protection and support for the brain and other internal organs; also storage for important minerals like calcium and phosphorus
what are functions of the muscular system movement, maintain our posture, provide heat to maintain our body temperature
what is the muscle organ that attaches the muscle to a bone tendon
what is the nervous system comprised of brain,spinal cord,nerves
what are the main functions of the nervous system communication,integration of body functions,control of body functions,recognition of sensory stimuli
what system secretes hormones directly into he blood endocrine
where are the pituitary gland,pineal gland and hypothalamus located skull
where can the thyroid and parathyroid glands located neck
where can the thymus gland found thoracic cavity
what is the main function of the circulatory system transportation
what is integument it refers to the skin
what organs form the cardiovascular system heart,arteries,veins,capillaries
what are the organs of the skeletal system bones, ligaments
what are the lymphatic vessels filled with watery fluid containing lymphocytes,proteins,fatty molecules
what system moves fluids and small particles back to the blood lymphatic
what are the major organs of the respiratory system nose,pharynx,larynx,bronchi,lungs
what system is involved in regulating the acid-base balance of the body respiratory
what are the primary organs of digestion mouth,pharynx,esophagus,stomach,small intestine,rectum, anal canal
what are the accesory digestive organs teeth,salivary glands,tongue,liver,gallbladder,pancreas,appendix
what is the name of the tube of the digestive system that is open at both ends alimentary canal or GI tract
what are the organs of the urinary system kidneys,ureters,bladder,urethra
what is the name of the essentialorgans of production in both male and female gonads
what is the external genitalia comprised of in males penis and scrotum
what is the external genitalia in females vulva
what organ in males is shared by both the urinary and reproductive systems urethra
what are the 3 main parts of a cell plasma membrane,cytoplasm,nucleus
what is the membrane enclosing the cytoplasm plasma membrane
what is the name of the 2 layers of phosphate-containing fat molecules called phospholipids
what is another fat molecule that is a component of the plasma membrane cholesterol
what is the internal living material of cells called cytoplasm
what is the main function of the nucleus controls every organelle in the cytoplasm;it also controls the complex process of cell reproduction
what surrounds the nucleus nuclear envelope
what tiny openings in the nuclear envelope permit large molecules to move into and out of the nucleus nuclear pores
what is the name of cell material within the nucleus enclosed by the nuclear envelope nucleoplasm
what are the 2 most important specialized structures in the nucleoplasm nucleolus and chromatin
what are the threadlike structures made of proteins and hereditary molecules in the nucleus called DNA
what is the name of the DNA molecule that has coiled to form a compact mass during mitosis chromosomes
what is mitosis indirect cell division involving complex changes in the nucleus
what is the movement of particles through a membrane from high concentration to low concentration diffusion
what is RibonucleicAcid(RNA) nucleic acid found in the cytoplasm that is crucial in protein synthesis
what are the bases that each DNA molecule is made of adenine,thymine,guanine,cystosine
What is a gene a specific segment of base pairs in a chromosome
what is the store of information in each gene called genetic code
what is the main function of the coded information in the genes it controls protein and enzyme production
what do enzymes do facilitate cellular chemical reactions,and these determine cell structure and function, thus heredity
both RNA and DNA are composed of four bases,a sugar and phosphate.is this true or false true
what is the name of the process of transferring genetic information from the nucleus into the cytoplasm transcription(copy) and translation
During what method does the double stranded DNA molecule separate to form mRNA transcription
what is the synthesis of a protein by ribosomes in which the information in an mRNA is used to direct the choice of building amono acids translation
what is the name of a series of 3 mucleotide bases that act as a code representing a specific amino acid codon
what is total of all te DNA in each cell of the body called genome
what is the term referring to excessive,uncontrollable bleding hemophilia
at what stage is the cell not dividing but going about its usual functions interphase
what is the first stage of mitosis prophase
during prophase, the chromosomes in the nucleus form 2 strands called what chromatids
the beadlike structure that holds the chromatids together is called what centromere
what is the protein factory called ribosomes
what is the digestive system in the cell called lysosomes
what helps in cell production centrioles
what is the powr plant mitochondria
what is the packaging and processing center golgi apparatus
what is the term given to increase in size of individual cells hypertrophy
what is the condition where cells fail to mature normally anaplasia
what is neoplasm tumor
what are the 4 main tissues of the body's main organs epithelial,connective,muscle,nervous
what is the function of the areolar connection
what is the function of the adipose(fat) protection
what is the function of the hematopoietic blood cell formation
what tissue covers the body and many of its parts epithelial
what is meant by striated marked by parallel or structural lines
the skeletal and cardiac muscles are both striated and voluntary. true or false false. both are striated but the skeletal is voluntary and the cardiac is involuntary
what is the term given to the amount and kinds of intercellular material found between the cells in the connective tissue matrix
what are the major types of connective tissue in the body areolar, adipose,fibrous,bone,cartilage,blood,hematopoeitic
among the connective tissue, which 1 is the most widely distributed areolar
what tissue in the connective stores lipids adipose
what are chondrocytes cartilage cells
what are the 3 kinds of muscle tissue skeletal,cardiac, smooth
what are the 2 kinds of cells in the nervous system neurons,neuroglia
through what process is the nerve impulse transmitted away from the cell body axon
what is the process through which impulses are carried toward the cell body dendrites
anything that occupies space is called what matter
what is the smallest unit of matter atom
what is an atom compoed of protons(+),neutrons(-),electrons
the atomic mass is the number of what protons
electrons move about within certain limits called orbitals.true or false arranged true
orbitals are arranged into what energy levels(shells)
atoms unite to form larger chemicals called what molecules
substances whose molecules have more than one element are called what compound
why do chemical bonds form to make an atom more stable
2 atoms of the same atomic number and element are called what isotypes
what is an ion electronically atom or group of atoms
what is an ionic bond chemical bond formed by the positive-negative attraction between 2 ions
when 2 atoms share the same bond, it is called what covalent bond
covalent bonds break easily in water.true or false false
acids produce an excess of h+ ions, and thus a base. true or false true
chemicals that maintain the body's pH are called what buffers
what category of organic chemical is made up of monosaccharites carbohydrates
what category of organic chemical is made up of fatty acids lipid
Created by: adicole