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Nissing Nutrition T2

Nutrition Test 2 part 2 Chapter 8, 9

Vitamin synthesized by bacteria, algae, and fungi B-12
Where is B-12 stored in your body? The liver
What's the name for deficiency of vitamin B-12 Pernicious Anemia
How is vitamin B-12 digested? Salivary protein binds to B-12, it requires stomach acid and intrinsic factor, and is absorbed in last part of the small intestine.
Because many factors can disrupt the process of vitamin B-12 processing, so people can become deficient in it. How do those people get their B-12? Injection or mega dose
True or false: many people get insufficient B-12 in their diet False. Most people get 2x what they need (and pee the rest out)
This vitamin is sensitive to cooking and can cause diarrhea if you take too much Vitamin C
What elements can degrade vitamin C? Iron, Copper, Oxygen
Name the 4 main functions of vitamin C Collagen synthesis, iron absorption, immune function, antioxidant
Deficiency of Vitamin C for about a month can cause weakness, bleeding gums, fatigue, pinpoint hemorrhages. This is called... Scurvy
What does an antioxidant get rid of in your body? Free radicals (highly reactive atoms in your body)
Many vitamin deficiencies are found in people who consume large amounts of... Alcohol
An essential nutrient that is a precursor for neurotransmittors and phospholipids Choline
What kinds of things happen to people who take in too much Choline? Fishy body odor, vomiting, salifation, sweating, GI effects, hypotension
Vitamins that assist in Gene expression Vit A and D
Vitamins that assist in bone health ADKC
Vitamins that assist in energy metabolism B vitamins
Supplements include one or more of these items... Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs, Amino acids
What percent of your body weight is made up of water? 50-70
Which contains more water, muscle tissue or fat? Muscle (73%) fat is lighter and water is heavier, like muscle.
Over half the water in your body is stored in... your cells. The rest is interstitial (between cells, in eyes, etc) and in your blood and lymph fluid
Osmosis is the diffusion of water from... An area with fewer dissolved molecules to an area with more dissolved molecules
True or false: Vitamins give you energy False. Only fats, carbs, and proteins yield energy.
What is a "megadose" of vitamins? 3-10x as much as you need, used in treating certain conditions caused by deficiency
What ion is abundant in the intracellular space (what is dissolved into the fluid inside cells) Potassium
What ion is abundant in the extracellular space (what is dissolved into the fluid outside cells) Sodium
A hypotonic (dilute) concentration will cause cells to... rupture
A hypertonic (concentrated) solution will cause cells to... crenate/shrink
What are 3 major functions of water in our bodies? Body temp regulation, Body waste removal via urine, Specialized fluids (amniotic, joints, saliva, bile)
What type of vitamin is not readily excreted from the body? Fat soluble (except K)
How are water soluble vitamins excreted Urine (Except B-6 and B-12)
Supplementation can cause toxicity in some vitamins. Why? Some, like most fat soluble and some water soluble, can accumulate in the body instead of being excreted.
If your body doesn't absorb fat well, what impact might this have on your vitamin absorption? Fat soluble vitamin deficiency
What is preformed Vitamin A, found in animal products, called? Retinoids
What is proformed Vitamin A, found in plant products, called? Carotenoids
Word meaning dry eyes caused by Vitamin A deficiency Xerophthalmia
This vitamin is a prohormone that is synthesized from cholesterol when you are exposed to sun Vitamin D
This hormone is released from the pituitary gland and causes your body to conserve water by reducing urine output Antidiuretic hormone
This hormone detects a drop in blood pressure and tells the kidneys to hold onto sodium, which causes water retention Aldosterone
Word that means "soft bones" and can cause a rickets-like disease in adults who don't take in enough vitamin D Osteomalacia
This vitamin resides mostly on cell membranes, protects blood cells and nerve cells, and most people don't get enough of it. Vitamin E
This vitamin is synthesized by bacteria in the colon and plays a role in blood coagulation. Poor intake may cause hip fractures. Vitamin K (Koagulation)
These vitamins are lost by cooking Water soluble
A deficiency in this vitamin causes Beriberi, but if you take enough it is used in the metabolism of energy. B1 Thiamin
This vitamin participates in metabolic pathways, and if you are deficient you could get Cheilosis, which includes inflammation of the mouth and tongue, dermatitis. Riboflavin
This vitamin is used in energy metabolism, and deficiency can lead to Pallagra: Dermatitis, Dementia, Death B3 Niacin
What happens to you if you drink too much water? Overburden kidneys, reduce blood electrolyte concentration, blurred vision
What's the difference between major minerals and trace minerals? Major means you require more than 100 mg/day, trace means you need less than 100 mg/day.
What is your greatest need mineral? Calcium
This vitamin helps break down certain amino acids, lends to health of skin Biotin
This vitamin is needed to metabolize fat, carbs, and protein. It is necessary to synthesize neurotransmitters and blood components. It is used to reduce nausea in pregnancy, and can cause nerve damage if you are deficient for 2 months. Vitamin B-6
This vitamin is involved in neurotransmitter formation, and deficiency can cause megaloblastic anemia or fetal neural tube defects. Folic Acid/Folate
This vitamin helps metabolize folate, and without it you could develop pernicious anemia, nerve degeneration, or paralysis. Vitamin B-12
Which is better absorbed, minerals from animal or plant products? Animal
Which is more toxic, trace minerals or major minerals? Trace.
What hormone regulates sodium balance? Aldosterone
What are the signs of sodium deficiency (which is extremely rare) N/V/D, cramping, dizziness, shock
Deficiencies in this mineral can lead to muscle cramps, irregular heartbeat, heart failure Potassium
40% of all the minerals in your body are... Calcium. Most abundant mineral in the body.
Where is Calcium absorbed? In the upper part of the small intestine
What vitamin allows the absorption of calcium? Vitamin D
Mineral involved in blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and cell metabolism. Also involved in bone formation and maintenance. Calcium.
Calcium Carbonate is taken for... excessive stomach acid, also as a calcium supplement
Calcium Citrate is taken for... Calcium. It has acid it it (citrate) to help absorption.
This mineral is found in ATP, cell membranes, and DNA Phosphorus
60% of this mineral is stored in the bones, it is required for proper nerve and cardiac functions, and you can get it from chocolate and coffee Magnesium
This mineral is involved in drug detoxification and there is no deficiency or toxicity related with it Sulfur
Where is "heme" iron found? Animal products
Where is "nonheme" iron found? Grain
This vitamin aids in absorption of iron Vitamin C
This is the most common form of anemia Iron-deficient
This word refers to the consumption of non-food items Pica
Signs of iron deficiency anemia Pale skin, brittle nails, poor growth, poor temperature control (feeling cold or hot), poor attention
What does bioavailable mean? Well absorbed
Genetic disorder where affected individuals have high iron deposits that lead to organ damage. May go undetected until damage done Hemochromatosis
Mineral involved in wound healing and immune function, as well as development of sexual organs and bones Zinc
Deficiency in this mineral can cause an acne like rash and learning disabilities Zinc
Too much zinc may cause this in men Prostate cancer
Deficiency of this mineral can cause muscle pain, muscle wasting, weakness, and deterioration of heart muscle. Too much can cause cirrhosis of the liver and garlic breath Selenium
A deficiency of this mineral can cause a goiter (enlarged thyroid gland) or cretinism (stunting of growth) Iodide
This mineral helps form hemoglobin, transport iron, and if you don't get enough it can cause anemia, inadequate growth, bone loss, and decreased WBCs Copper
This mineral has a role in preventing dental caries by helping tooth enamel resist acid and inhibiting bacterial growth Fluoride
Deficiency in this mineral can impair glucose tolerance and may have a role in Type 2 Diabetes, as well as elevating blood cholesterol and triglycerides Chromium
Vitamins, or essential nutrients, must meet these two criteria 1) the body can't synthesize enough for health 2) Deficiency for a defined time produces symptoms that can be cured by replacement
Exceptions to the rule: Fat soluble vitamins are not readily excreted by the body and water soluble vitamins are. Except these 3... Fat soluble vitamin K is readily excreted. Water soluble B-6 and B-12 are readily stored.
Name some practices that can decrease the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins some weight loss drugs, mineral oil laxative use, cooking in oil that is not part of the meal (like frying),
Which vitamin is primarily considered a hormone? Vitamin D
Created by: jenissing