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Marine Ecology Exam2

What is ecology? The study of interactions of living organisms with biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) environment
List the ecological levels. Organism -> population -> community -> ecosystem
What is population ecology? The study of interactions of a population with their environment, focusing on factors that influence population diversity and growth
What types of questions do researchers ask? (4) abundance, density, distribution, characteristics
What is abundance? # of individuals
What is density? # of individuals per unit
What is distribution? Geographic location, patterns
What are characteristics? structure (example: proportion of individuals of each age/gender)
What is a habitat? place or environment situation where an organism lives. combination of physical (abiotic) and biological (biotic) factors
Does an individual always have to live in the same habitat? No. Young vs. old have different habitats.
What is diversity? the number and relative abundance of species in a community
What is species richness? the total number of species in a community
What is relative abundance? How common or rare a species is compared to other species
What are interspecific interactions? any interaction between members of different species
What is competition? competing for physical resource such as food or space. Negative for both parties.
What is predation? One organism eating another. Good for one, bad for the other.
What is symbiosis and what are the three subcategories of symbiosis? 2 organisms living together 1. Parasitism 2. Mutualism 3. Commensalism
What is parasitism? One organism lives off another. Good for the parasite, bad for the host.
What is mutualism? Both parties benefit
What is commensalism? Positive for one party, neutral for the other.
What is the intertidal zone? The sea floor that lies between the highest high and the lowest low tide.
How is the intertidal zone a unique environment? Marine organisms are regularly exposed to air so they must have ways to cope with the exposure.
What are tides? Periodic, rhythmic rise and fall of the sea surface
What pulls water towards the moon? Gravity
What causes water to move away from the moon? Centrifugal force
Where are the high and low tides in relation to the bulges? High tide is under the bulge and the low tide is away from the bulge
What else produces tidal bulges? The sun
What is the effect of the tidal bulge produced by the sun? about half of the moon's
How are spring tides formed? The sun and moon are in line and, resulting in large tidal ranges
How are neap tides formed? The sun and moon are at right angles, resulting in a small tidal change
What is a semidiurnal tide? Where is one found? 2 high and 2 low tides a day NYC
What are mixed tides? Where is one found? unequal heights Seattle
What are diurnal tides? Where is one found? 1 high and 1 low tide a day Pensacola, Florida
What is a substrate? What is affected by the substrate? Type of bottom or in which an organism lives. The lifestyle of organisms depend on the substrate
What is the epifauna? Organisms that live on the surface of substrate
What is infauna? organisms that burrow/live in the substrate
Where do rocky shores occur? On steep coasts without much sediment
What is the rocky shore on the west coast of North America like? Active margin uplifted by geological processes
What is the rocky shore on the east coast of north america like? Rebounded after ice sheets scraped sediment away
What is the rocky shore on Hawaii like? geologically very young
What protists can be found in a rocky intertidal? seaweed, kelp, plankton
What fungi can be found in a rocky intertidal? lichen
What are 4 invertebrate phyla that can be found in a rocky intertidal? Crustacea, enchitodermata, mollusca, cnidaria
What are 3 vertebrae classes that can be found in a rocky intertidal? aves, mammalian, osteichthyes
What is the common name for an anthozoan? Sea anenome
What phylum is the anthozoan in? Cnidaria
How does an anthozoan capture prey? With nematocysts
What organisms are classified as gastropods? snails, limpets, abalones, nudibranchs
What phylum are gastropods in? Mollusca
What is unique about gastropods? They are a coiled mass of internal organs enclosed by a shell
What do gastropods use to scrape algae from rocks? Radula
Nudibranchs have lost their shell. What are their defense mechanisms? ink
What organisms are classified as bivalves? clams, mussels, oysters
What are 2 unique qualities of bivalves? 2-valved shell and strong muscles to close valves
How do muscles attach to rocks? byssal threads
Bivalves lack a radula that gastropods have, so how do they feed? gills used for respiration and filter feeding
What organisms are classified as crustaceans? shrimps, crabs, lobsters, barnacles
What phylum are crustaceans in? arthropoda
How do crustaceans feed? barnacles filter feed, crabs are scavengers
What organisms are classified as enchinodermata? sea stars, sand dollars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers
What type of symmetry do enchinidermata have and what is the advantage of it? radial symmetry. Slow moving so better response
What happened to bilateral symmetry in enchinodermata? retained in larval stage
What does it mean to be sessile? not moving (sea anenomes)
What is detritus? What makes of det All dead matter in the ocean
In an intertidal, who are the primary producers? seaweeds, diatoms, seagrasses
In an intertidal, who are the grazers and what do they eat? Limpets, snails, chitons, sea urchins. They eat seaweeds, diatoms, and seagrasses.
In an intertidal, who are the scavengers and what do they eat? Crabs, amphipods, isopods. They eat detritus.
In an intertidal, who are the filter feeders and what do they eat? Mussels and barnacles. They eat plankton.
In an intertidal, who are the carnivores? sea stars, snails, fishes, crabs, flatworms, birds. They eat grazers (limpets, snails, chitons, sea urchins), scavengers (crabs, amphipods, isopods), and filter feeders (mussels, barnacles)
What is wave shock? Change in intensity of the waves. When the tide is in, organisms have to deal with wave shock.
What is a wave? an undulation that forms as a disturbance moves along the surface of the water.
How do water particles in a wave move? They move in circles
What carries energy across sea surface? waves
What determines size of waves? wind speed and duration
What is the fetch? the span of water over which wind blows
What is a tsunami? long, fast waves produced by earthquakes and other seismic disturbances of the sea floor
How fast can a tsunami travel? 700 km/hr +
What is the average height of a tsunami? 1 meter in the open ocean but it can gain tremendous height in shallow water
What is the deadliest tsunami in recorded history? 2004 9.0 quake in Indonesia
What are the daily stresses faced by intertidal life? desiccation, temperature, salinity, feeding, wave shock
What is desiccation? The tendency to dry out during emersion
How is temperature a stress? Extreme variation during emersion or in shallow tidepools
How is salinity a stress? extreme variations, exposure to fresh water, evaporation
How is feeding a stress? Most organisms cannot feed when the tide is out
What is wave shock? variation in the intensity of wave impact
What are solutions to stresses? prevent stress, tolerate stress, avoid stress
How can an organism prevent stress? 1. run and hide 2. clam up
How can an organism tolerate stress? morphological structures physiological structures
Created by: stephytaylor10