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Histo 2 Exam 2

NWHSU T2

QuestionAnswer
Name the hormone described. Low levels in infancy results in mental and growth retardation. (W11) Thyroid Hormone, T3 and T4 (CBN) from last test
Name the hormone described. Stimulates the secretion of Insulin-like growth factor 1.(W11) Growth hormone (CBN) From last test
Name the hormone described. Increases blood sugar by gluconeogenesis.(W11) Cortisol((CBN) and Glucagon (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Facilitates the movement of glucose into the hepatocyte. (W11) Insulin (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Low level may be lethal becuase of the resulting affects on the myocardium. (W11) Parathyroid (CBN) and Aldosterone (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Secrected by parafollicular cells.(W11) Calcitonin (CBN) from last test
Name the hormone described. Low levels may cause an increase in pigentation. (W11) Cortisol (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Increases the use of fat for energy. (W11) Cortisol (CBN), Epinephrine((CBN)), and Glucagon (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Causes an increase in blood calcium. (W11) Parathyroid hormone (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Causes an increase in protein stores. (W11) Growth hormone (CBN) and Insulin (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Stimulates the distal tubules of the kidney to secrete K. (W11) Aldosterone (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Secretion is inhibited by somatostatin. (W11) Glucagon((CBN)), and Insulin (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Lysosomal enzymes are required in its fomration. (W11) Thyroid Hormones, T3 and T4 (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Secretion is stimulated by preganglionic sympathetic neurons. (W11) Epinephrine (CBN) and Norepnephrine (CBN)
Which of the following is expected with an abnormally high level of insulin? A. Dehydration, B. Lethary or stupor, C. Increased blood sugar, D. Decreased blood sugar, E. Glucosuria, F. Tremors and sweating (W11) B. Lethary or stupor D. Decreased blood sugar F. Tremors and sweating ??
Renin is secreted by A. ___________ cells located primarily in the B. _________ (W11) A. Juxtaglomerular cells (CBN) B. Walls of the afferent duct (CBN)
In the male the internal urethral sphincter is located __________ (W11) in the neck of bladder and behind the prostate gland (CBN)
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule described. Forms the interstitial osmotic gradient. (W11) (MASH) Thin segments (CBN)
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule described. Absorbs most of the water from the filtrate. (W11) (MASH) Proximal Tubule (CBN)
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule described. Contains sensory epithelium. (W11) Distal tubule the Macula densa portion (CBN)
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule described. Only site for the absorption of glucose. (W11) (MASH) Proximal tubule (CBN)
It appears that all causes of the nephrotic syndrome are related to structural and/or functional abnormalities in the ______________. Be very specific. (W11) Glomerular basement membrane ??
Name the accessory male reproductive gland which secretes: (W11) a) fructose and prostaglandins b) Fibrinolysin and acid phosphatase a. seminal vesicle(CBN) b. Prostate (CBN)
Penile erection occurs when a. _________ nerves cause closure of the AV shunt and diversion of blood into the b. ____________ (W11) a. parasympathic (CBN) b. cavernous space (CBN)
Smooth muscle for the excretory ducts is innervated by ___________ nerves. (W11) sympathetic ??
Give the 2 major requirements for spermatogenesis _________ (W11) 1. High local levels of testosterone (CBN) 2. Intimate contact with Sertoli cells (CBN)
In which cells of spermatogenesis does genetic recombination occur? (W11) Primary spermatocytes (CBN)
The sertoli cells a. ___________ in response to b. __________ stimulations (W11) a. Androgen binding Protein and inhibin (CBN) b. Follicle stimulating hormone (CBN)
Describe the state for the DNA in the germ cell of the primordial follicle (W11) 4N DNA in the 1st meiotic (CBN)
Draw and label a picture for the primodial follicle . (W11) Pg. 86 of notes
Name the hormone described. Low levels in infancy result in both mental and growth retardation. (UK) Thyroid hormones, T3 and T4 (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Increases protein stores/ spares protein. (UK) Insulin (CBN) and Growth hormone (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Enhances the utilization of fats for energy. (UK) Cortisol, Epinephrine (CBN), and Glucagon
Name the hormone described. Causes an increase in Blood Ca (UK) Parathyroid hormones (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Increases blood sugar. (UK) Epinephrine (CBN), Norepinephrine (CBN), cortisol (CBN), GLucagon (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Targets the distal tubule to stimulate the secretion of K. (UK) Adosterone (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Inhibits the secretion of growth hormone. (UK) Somatostatin(CBN), insulin-like growth factor 1 (CBN), growth hormone (CBN)
Name the hormone described. Stimulates the uptake of glucose by the hepatocyte. (UK) insulin (CBN)
Give the characteristics of nephrotic syndrome. a. ______ in urine, low levels of b._______ in the blood, and c. _______. All correct of credit.(UK) A. Protiens B. Proteins C. swelling Wild guess but most likely right
Give the characteristics of nephrotic syndrome: The underlying cases of nephrotic syndrome in a functional or structural abnormality of the _________. Be very specific. (UK) nephrons (Book)
Consider the filtration barrier in the kidney. Which components are formed by the capillary? (UK) Glomerulus (CBN)
Consider the filtration barrier in the kidney. Which components are formed by the visceral layer of bowman's capsule? (UK) Podocytes (CBN)
What form the internal urethral sphincter? (UK) Middle Circular Layer of smooth muscle(CBN)
Where is the internal urethral sphincter located in the male? (UK) Neck of bladder behind the prostate gland. (CBN)
Name the structures of the uriniferous tubule described. Secreted Renin. (UK) Juxtaglomerular cells (CBN)
Name the structures of the uriniferous tubule described. The only site of glucose absorption. (UK) Porximal tubule (CBN)
Name the structures of the uriniferous tubule described. Epithelium becomes permeable to water when stimulated by antidiuretic hormone. (UK) Distal tubule (CBN)
Name the structures of the uriniferous tubule described. Forms the interstitial osmotic gradient. (UK) Collecting tubules (CBN)
Name the structures of the uriniferous tubule described. Is postulated to maintain the glomerular basement membrane. (UK) Mesangium (CBN)
Name the structures of the uriniferous tubule described. Believed to be sensory epithelium located in the distal tubule. (UK) Macula densa (CBN)
Give the two requirements for normal spermatogenesis. (UK) 1. High level of testosterone (CBN) 2. Intimate contact with sertoli cells (CBN)
Which germ cell is the first to move up from the basal lamina and become protected by the blood-testis barrier? (UK) Why is it important for this cell to become protected? A. Primary spermatocyte (CBN) B. Protection from immune responses (CBN)
Androgen binding protein is secreted by the A._____cell in response to B. _______. (UK) A. Sertoli cells (CBN) B. Follicle stimulating hormone (CBN)
A. Which cells undergo spermiogenesis? B. Name 2 things that happen in the stage. (UK) A. Spermatogonia (CBN) B. Mitosis and differnetion (CBN)
Choose the statement which describe each of the organs below. Prostate. (UK) hyperplasia may result in urine retention (CBN)
Choose the statement which describe each of the organs below. Seminal Vesicle (UK) secretes fructose and prostaglandins (CBN)
Choose the statement which describe each of the organs below. Epididymis (UK) Stimulates functional maturation of the spermatazoa (CBN)
Choose the statement which describe each of the organs below. Efferent ducts (UK) epithelium has motile cells (CBN)
Refer to the diagram on pg 5 of Box notes. Identify and name cells which have the morphology of steriod synthesis. (UK)
Refer to the diagram on pg 5 of Box notes. Identify and name the cells which convert androgens to estrogen. (UK)
Refer to the diagram on pg 5 of Box notes. Name structure #___. the chromosomes are int he process of _________ (UK)
Describe the effects of follicular estrogen of each of the following: Cervical glands (UK) Increase mucus secretion with estrogen (CBN)
Describe the effects of follicular estrogen of each of the following: Hypothalmus/ adenohypophysis (UK) Causes tonic inhibition of prolactin (WTFK)
Describe the effects of follicular progesterone on each of the following: Endometrium (UK) Cuases glands to become highly coiled and accumulate a glycogen rich product, spiral arteries increase coiling, and edema of the stroma. (CBN)
Describe the effects of follicular progesterone on each of the following: Mammary gland stroma (UK) Causes the formation of the corpus luteum. (CBN)
A uterine leiomyoma is composed of A.______. When does this tumor regress and why? (UK) A. Myometrium (CBN) B. Smooth muscle and hormone deficency (WTFK)
Which ones of the following are likely with low levels of insulin? put all that are correct (1W12) A. Starvation of the CNS B. Dehydration C. Ketones in Urine D. Increases blood pH E. Decreases respiratory rate B. Dehydration (CBN), C. Ketones in Urine (CBN)
Which organelles are required for the formation of T3 and T4 from thyroglobulin? (2W12) Lysosime (CBN)
Name the Hormones described. Causes an increase in blood Calcium (3iW12) Parathyroid Hormone (CBN)
Name the Hormones described. Secreted in response to preganglionic sympathetic stimulation.(3iiW12) Epinephrine; (CBN) Norepinephrine (CBN)
Name the Hormones described. Low levels in infancy results in mental retardation. (3iiiW12) Thyroid hormone, T3 and T4 (CBN)
Name the Hormones described. Stimulates the distal tubule to secrete potassium. (3vW12) Aldosterone (CBN)
Name the Hormones described. Promotes the uptake of glucose by the hepatocyte. (3viW12) Insulin (CBN)
Name the Hormones described. High levels inhibit the function of the immune system (3viiW12) Cortisol (CBN)
Name the Hormones described. Inhibits the secretion of growth hormone. (3viiiW12) Insulin like growth factor 1 (CBN); Somatostatin (CBN)
Name the Hormones described. Causes the collecting tubule to become permeable to water. (3ixW12) antidiuretic hormone (CBN)
Name the Hormones described. Secreted by neurons. (xW12) Somatostatin (CBN) Antidiuretic hormone (CBN)
Name the cells/structures of the uriniferous tubule described. Only site for the absorption of glucose. (4iW12) Proximal tubule (CBN)
Name the cells/structures of the uriniferous tubule described. Form the slit pores of the renal filtration barrier. (4iiW12) Podocytes (CBN)
Name the cells/structures of the uriniferous tubule described. Form the interstitial osmotic gradient. (4iiiW12) Thin segment (CBN)
Name the cells/structures of the uriniferous tubule described. Contain specialized sensory epithelium. (4ivW12) Distal tubule (CBN)
Describe the cytology of the proximal tubule as it relates to its function. (5W12) Vast infoldings in plasma membrane on ALL sides of the cell and numerous mitochondria both for increase transport (CBN)
What portions of the renal filtration barrier are formed by the glomerulus? be specific and complete! (6W12) Fenestrae without diaphragm and BL (CBN)
In the kidney, the efferent arterioles lead to two vascular beds: A. _______ in the cortex and B. _____ in the medulla. (7W12) A. Peritubuller capilaeries (CBN) B. Vasa recta (CBN)
Renin is secreted by the A. _______ cells which are primarily located in the B. _______. (8W12) A. Juxtaglamerolar cells (CBN) B. walls of the afferent arterioles (CBN)
The underlying pathogenesis for most cases of primary gloerulanephritis involves the _______ system. (9W12) Immune (CBN)
Give the two requirements for spermatogenesis. (10W12) 1. High local levels of testerone (CBN) 2. An intimate relationship with the sertolli cells (CBN)
Name the male reproductive organ described. Benign hyperplasia is common in elderly men. (11iW12) Prostate (CBN)
Name the male reproductive organ described. Secretes a product high in prostaglandins (11iiW12) Seminal vesicle (CBN)
Name the male reproductive organ described. Site of functional maturation of sperm. (11iiiW12) Epididymis (CBN)
Name the male reproductive organ described. Surrounded by peritubular contractile cells. (11ivW12) Seminiferous tubule (CBN)
Name the male reproductive organ described. Secretes a lubricating mucus (11vW12) Bulbourethral (CBN)
Name the male reproductive organ described. Lined by festooned epithelium. (11viW12) Efferent Duct (CBN)
In penile erection, stimulation by. A. _______ causes closure of the arteriovenous shunt and relaxation of helicine arteries thus causing the B.______ to fill with blood. (12W12) A. parasympathetic nervous system (CBN) B. Caverneous space (CBN)
What processes are involved in the formation of primary spermatocytes from spermatogonia? (13W12) mitosis and differentation (CBN)
Sertoli cells secrete A. ________ in response to stimulation by B. ______. (14W12) A. Androgen binding protein and inhibin (CBN) B. Follicle stimulating hormone (CBN)
Most testicular tumors arise from _____ and are a highly malignant. (15W12) germ (CBN)
The ______ is a common site of metaplasia/ dysplasia that may develop into cervical cancer. (16W12) squmocenial junction (transtitial zone) (CBN)
The corpus lutem of pregnacy is maintained by A._________ (hormone) which is secreted by B.____. (17W12) A. human chorionic ganodotropic (CBN) B. placenta (CBN)
In the lactating mammary gland A. ______ stimulates the synthesis of milk and B. _______ stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cells. (18W12) A. prolactin (CBN) B. oxytocin (CBN)
Give the stimulus. Stimulates the LH surge (19iW12) Estrogen (CBN)
Give the stimulus. Inhibits both FSH and LH (19iiW12) Progesterone (CBN)
Give the stimulus. Stimultes edema in the mammary stroma and in the endometrium (15iiiW12) Progesterone (CBN)
Give the stimulus. Secreted from ganulosa lutein cells (15ivW12) Progesterone (CBN)
Give the stimulus. Stimulate ciliogenesis in oviduct epithelium (15vW12) Esterogen (CBN)
Give the stimulus. Secreted from the adernal cortex (15viW12) Both estrogen and progesterone (CBN)
Give the stimulus. Stimulates processes int he vagina which lead to an increased pH (15viiW12) Neither Estrogen nor progestrone (CBN)
Give the stimulus. Decresed secretion results in shedding of the endometrium (15viiiW12) Progesterone (CBN)
Describe the state of the chromosomes in the primordial follicle. (20W12) The chromosomes in the primordial follicle is $N DNA and is airested in dipltene (CBN)
Draw and label the primordial follicle (21W12) Box pg 18
Name the hormones which cause an increase in blood sugar by glycogenolysis (S11) Epipherne (CBN), glucagon (CBN)
What is the fundamental pathology in Type 1 Diabetes? (S11) Destruction of Beta cells (CBN)
Name the hormones which causes a decrease in protein stores. (S11) Cortisol (CBN) and EPI
Aldosterone results in decreased blood level of A.___ and increased blood levels of B. ___ (S11) A. Potassium (CBN) B. Sodium (CBN)
Adrenal medulla cells are stimulated by _____. (S11) sympathetic nervous system (CBN)
Which of the following would likely be present with elevated blood sugar? A. loss of protein stores, B. Dehydration, C. Signs o=and symptoms of a starving CNS, D. Tachypnea, E. Alkalosis, F. Glucosuria, G. Increased fat utiliazation (S11) A. Loss of portein (CBS) B. Dehydration (CBS) F. Glucosuria (CBS) G. Increased Fat utiliaztion (CBS)
Name the portions of the renal filtration barrier formed by the podocytes. (S11) Slit pores and slit membranes (CBN)
Angiotensinogen is cleaved to Angiotensin 1 by A. _____ which is secreted by B. ______. (S11) A. renin (CBN) b. juxtaglomerular cells (CBN)
Give the 2 conditions needed to concentrate urine. (S11) Salinity gradient in the medullary interstitium (BOOK) and Antidiuretic hormone (CBN)
Name the cells of the kidney described: Targets of aldosterone (S11) distal (CBN) and collecting (CBN)
Name the cells of the kidney described: Only site of glucose absorption. (S11) proximal tubule (CBN)
Name the cells of the kidney described: Likely sensory epithelium located in the distal tubule (S11) macoia densa (CBN)
Name the cells of the kidney described: Postulated to help keep the filtration barrier free of debris (S11) Mesangial cells (CBN)
In penile erection, stimulation by A.______ causes closure of the arterio-venous shunt so blood is diverted into the B. _______ (S11) A. parasympathetic (CBN) B. cavernous space (CBN)
In the male, follicle stimulating hormone targets the A. _______ cells and stimulates them to secrete B. ________ (S11) A. sertoli (CBN) B. Androgen binding protein and inhibin (CBN)
By what processes so spermatogonia give rise to primary spermatocytes?(S11) Mitosis (CBN) and Differentiation (CBN)
Give the 2 requirements for spermatogensis (S11) 1. High local levels of testosteone (CBN) 2. Intimate contact with Sertoli cells (CBN)
Name the accessory male reproductive gland which secretes prostaglandins and fibrinolysin. (S11) Prostate (CBN)
Diagram, Label and describe the blood-testis barrier. (S11) pg 81 note (CBN)
Smooth muscle of the vas defrens and of the accessory make reproductive glands is supplied by________ (S11) symathetic (??); book say the autonomic innervations
Name the ovarian cells which secrete androgens. (S11) ovarian hilar cell (CBN)
The thecas develop from _____ (S11) stroma (CBN)
In the first half of pregnancy, the corpus luteum is maintained by A.________ (hormone) secreted by B.________ (S11) A.progesterone B. Luteinizing hormone (CBN)
Diagram a label the primary follicle. pg 86 notes
Describe the state of the DNA/chromosomes in the germ cells of the primary follicle 4n DNA arrestedin a diplotic (CBN)
Which of the following are true only of estrogen? A. Stimulates ciliogenesis, B. Stimulates the secretory phase of the endometrium, C. Causes edema in the mammary stroma, D. Increase glycogen production by the vaginal epithelium, E. stimulates the LH sur a. Stimulates ciliogenesis Over done
Which of the following are true only of prosterone? A. Stimulates ciliogenesis, B. Stimulates the secretory phase of the endometrium, C. Causes edema in the mammary stroma, D. Increase glycogen production by the vaginal epithelium, E. stimulates the LH su b. stimulates the secretory phase of the endometruim Over done
Which of the following it true for both estrogen and progesterone? A. Stimulates ciliogenesis, B. Stimulates the secretory phase of the endometrium, C. Causes edema in the mammary stroma, D. Increase glycogen production by the vaginal epithelium, E. stimu Fix over full
Which population is most at risk for endometrial adenocarcinoma? (S11) Postmenopausal women (CBN)
Which layer of the endometrium is shed in the menses? (S11) Functional layer (CBN)
Name the hormones described. Causes an increase in blood sugar by glycogenolysis (UK) Glucagon (CBN), epiinephrine (CBN), norepinephrine (CBN)
Name the hormones described. Stimulates the synthesis of proteins (UK) Growth hormone (CBN) and Insulin (CBN)
Name the hormones described. Increases the utilization of fats for energy (UK) Coritsol (CBN) and insulin (CBN)
Aldosterone targets the A._______ cells in the kidney and causes them to B. ______ (UK) A. Cortex of the distal tubule (CBN) B. Absorbs Na secretes K (CBN)
What is the fundamental pathology in Type 1 diabetes? (UK) Antibodies against beta cell (CBN)
Consider the cells of the ovary which produce androgens. The ______ cells resemble Leydig cells and increase production during pregnancy. (UK) Ovarian hilar cells (CBN)
Consider the cells of the ovary which produce androgens. The _________ cells secrete androgens during the ovarian cycle in response to luteinzing hormone. (UK) Ovarian follicle cell (CBN)
What tissue forms the uterine fibroid?(UK) epithelium (internet)
The tranformation zone of the cervix is an important site of pathology. What is the trandformation zone? (UK) Where the two different epithelium meet the endocervix and the ectocervix, is a common site of dysplasia. (CBN)
Give the effects of estrogen on each of the following: Adenohypohysis (UK) increase Lh (CBN) Decrease FSH (CBN)
Give the effects of estrogen i=on each of the following: vagina (UK) Increase glyogen (CBN) and increase sloughing (CBN)
Consider the mammary glands: Which hormone stimulates the synthesis and secretion of milk? (UK) prolactin (CBN)
Consider the mammary glands: Which hormone cause edema of the stroma? (UK) progesterone (CBN)
A. diagram and label the structure which is ovulated. B. what is occuring in the nucleus of the this germ cells (UK) A. pg 87 secondary oocyte (CBN) B. Meiosi II begins; arrest in metaphase (CBN)
Name the male reproductive organ described. Benign hyperplasis is common in elderly men (UK) Prostate (CBN)
Name the male reproductive organ described. secretes a product high in prostaglandins. (UK) Seminal vesicle (CBN)
Name the male reproductive organ described. Site of functional maturation of sperm. (UK) Epididymis (CBN)
Squamous cell metaplasia of the cervix results from exposure to. postpubertal acidic enviroment of the vagina (??)
Which are the compoents of the secondary follicle? A. theca interna secretes estrogen, B. the theca externa which developed from the stroma. C. secondary oocyte, D. Granulosa cells which secrete progesterone, E. Zona pellicida which develops from the oocy A. Theca interna secretes estrogen (CBN) B. The theca externa which develops from the stroms C. Secondary oocyte
Give the stimulus for each of the following. Stimulates the LH surge (UK) Estrogen (CBN)
Give the stimulus for each of the following. Elevated levels result in menses (UK) Niether estrogen or progesterone (CBN)
Give the stimulus for each of the following. Inhibits both FSH and LH (UK) progesterone (CBN)
Give the stimulus for each of the following. High levels required in early pregnancy are stimulated by human chorinic gonadotropin (UK) Progesterone (CBN)
Give the stimulus for each of the following. Stimulates edema in the mammary stroma and in the endomettium (UK) progesterone (CBN)
Give the stimulus for each of the following. Requires both the theca interna and the granulosa for its synthesis (UK) estrogen (CBN)
Give the stimulus for each of the following. Secreted during the luteal phase (UK) both estrogen and progesterone (CBN)
Give the stimulus for each of the following. Actions in the vagina contribute to the formation of the acidic environment (UK) estrogen (CBN)
Give the stimulus for each of the following. High levels from the placenta inhibit maximum prolactin secretion (UK) estrogen (CBN)
Give the stimulus for each of the following. Secreted by the adernal cortex (UK) both estrogen and progesterone (CBN)
Which layer of the endometrium is shed in menses? (UK) functional layer (CBN)
What symptoms would be caused by benign prostate hyerplasia? (MASH) Urinary obstruction and bladder irritation; Compression of urethra, urination difficulties, urine retention. (CBN)
Where is the internal sphincter of the female located? (MASH) Around the neck of the bladder and entire urethra (CBN)
THe external urethral sphincter is formed by ______. (MASH) Skeletal muscle of the pelvic diaphragm (CBN)
Created by: Melissa Makranyi Melissa Makranyi on 2013-03-05



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