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The Digestive System

an/o- anus
bar/o- pressure, weight
chol/e- bile, gall
cholecyst/o- gall bladder
col/o- colon
colon/o- colon
dent/i- tooth
duoden/o- duodenum
enter/o- small intestines
esophag/o- esophagus
gastr/o- stomach
gloss/o- tongue
hepat/o- liver
ile/o- ileum
jejun/o- jejunum
lingu/o- tongue
lith/o- stone, calculus
or/o- mouth
pancreat/o- pancreas
phag/o- eat
proct/o- anus and rectum
rect/o- rectum
sigmoid/o- sigmoid colon
stomat/o- mouth
-emesis vomitting
-lithiasis presence of stones
-pepsia digestion
-phagia swallowing
aerophagia swallowing of air, sometimes due to nervousness or anxiety.
amebic dysentery a type of dysentery caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, characterized especially by ulceration of the large intestine.
anastomosis communication between blood vessels by means of collateral channels, especially when usual routes are obstructed
anorexia nervosa an eating disorder primarily affecting adolescent girls and young women, characterized by pathological fear of becoming fat, distorted body image, excessive dieting, and emaciation.
antiemetic of or pertaining to a substance that is useful in the suppression of nausea or vomiting.
aphthous ulcers An aphthous ulcer (aka canker sore ) is a type of oral ulcer which presents as a painful open sore inside the mouth or upper throat, caused by a break in the mucous membrane
ascites accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity; dropsy of the peritoneum.
bariatrics a branch of medicine that deals with the control and treatment of obesity and allied diseases.
borborygmus a rumbling or gurgling sound caused by the movement of gas in the intestines.
botulism a sometimes fatal disease of the nervous system acquired from spoiled foods in which botulin is present, especially improperly canned or marinated foods.
bulimia nervosa Also called hyperphagia. Pathology . abnormally voracious appetite or unnaturally constant hunger.
cachexia general ill health with emaciation, usually occurring in association with cancer or a chronic infectious disease.
cheilosis A disorder of the lips often due to riboflavin deficiency and other B-complex vitamin deficiencies and characterized by fissures, especially in the corners of the mouth.
cholangiography x-ray examination of the bile ducts using a radiopaque contrast medium.
cholangitis Inflammation of a bile duct.
choledocholithotomy Incision of the common bile duct for the extraction of an impacted gallstone.
cholelithiasis The presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
cholera an acute, infectious disease, endemic in India and China and occasionally epidemic elsewhere, characterized by profuse diarrhea, vomiting, cramps, etc.
cirrhosis a disease of the liver characterized by increase of connective tissue and alteration in gross and microscopic makeup.
colonoscopy visual inspection of the interior of the colon with a flexible, lighted tube inserted through the rectum.
Crohn's disease a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that causes scarring and thickening of the intestinal walls and frequently leads to obstruction.
diverticulitis inflammation of one or more diverticula, characterized by abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel movements.
diverticulosis the presence of saclike herniations of the mucosal layer of the colon through the muscular wall, common among older persons and usually producing no symptoms except occasional rectal bleeding.
dyspepsia deranged or impaired digestion; indigestion
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing.
emesis the technical name for vomiting
enteritis inflammation of the intestines, especially the small intestine.
eructation to raise (gas and often a small quantity of acid) from the stomach; belch
esophageal varices Longitudinal, superficial venous varices at the lower end of the esophagus that are prone to ulceration and massive bleeding.
esophagogastroduodenoscopy a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum.
gastroduodenostomy the making of a new passage between the stomach and the duodenum
gastroesophageal reflux disease a chronic condition in which acid from the stomach flows back into the lower esophagus, causing pain or tissue damage.
gastrostomy tube A feeding tube is a medical device used to provide nutrition to patients who cannot obtain nutrition by swallowing.
hematemesis The vomiting of blood.
Hemoccult test A qualitative test for hidden blood in the stool, based upon detecting the peroxidase activity of hemoglobin.
hepatitis inflammation of the liver, caused by a virus or a toxin and characterized by jaundice, liver enlargement, and fever.
herpes labialis a technical name for cold sore
hiatal hernia an abnormal condition in which part of the stomach protrudes upward through the esophageal cleft in the diaphragm, sometimes causing a backflow of acid stomach contents into the esophagus.
hyperemesis severe and excessive vomiting.
ileus intestinal obstruction characterized by lack of peristalsis and leading to severe colicky pain and vomiting.
inguinal hernia a common type of hernia in which a loop of the intestine protrudes directly through a weak area of the abdominal wall in the groin region.
jaundice yellow discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes, etc., due to an increase of bile pigments in the blood, often symptomatic of certain diseases, as hepatitis.
melena the discharge of black, tarry, bloody stools, usually resulting from a hemorrhage in the alimentary tract.
morbid obesity a state of overweight so great that it prevents normal activity or bodily function and will likely cause a serious or life-threatening disorder
nasogastric intubation medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.
obesity the condition of being very fat or overweight
periodontium Tissues that surround and support the teeth Get more discussion results
peristalsis the progressive wave of contraction and relaxation of a tubular muscular system, especially the alimentary canal, by which the contents are forced through the system.
proctopexy Surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum.
regurgitation voluntary or involuntary return of partly digested food from the stomach to the mouth.
salmonellosis a kind of food poisoning caused by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium.
sigmoidoscopy an examination by means of a sigmoidoscope.
trismus Spasm of the jaw muscles, causing the mouth to remain tightly closed, typically as a symptom of tetanus.
ulcerative colitis chronic ulceration in the large intestine, characterized by painful abdominal cramps and profuse diarrhea containing pus, blood, and mucus.
volvulus a torsion, or twisting, of the intestine, causing intestinal obstruction.
xerostomia dryness of the mouth caused by diminished function of the salivary glands due to aging, disease, drug reaction, etc.
Created by: 312551