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A&P 1st exam

sagittal vertical. left and right
transverse horizontal. superior and interior
coronal vertical. anterior and posterior
appendicular region includes limbs and their girldles
Axial region includes head, neck, trunk
Dorsal cavity contains brain and spinal cord
Ventral Cavity contains thoracic, abdominal, pelvic cavities
Thoracic cavity surrounded by ribcage. includes lungs, heart etc
Abdominal cavity bounded by abdominal muscles. includes stomach, intestines, etc.
pelvic cavity inside pelvic bones. includes bladder and internal sexual organs.
Abdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal + Pelvic Cavities
four abdominopelvic regions right upper, left upper, right lower, left lower
six abdominopelvic regions right hypochondriac, epigastirc, left hypochondriac. right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar. right illiac, hypogastric, left illiac
serous membranes cover organs in trunk cavities and contain serous fluid. reduces friction.
endomorph round, heavy physique. lots of fat in trunk and thighs.
mesomorph muscular physique
ectomorph thin, little body fat
fluid mosaic model. bi-layer phospholipids, that allow some molecules to pass through protein channels
cytoplasm substance inside cells, contains organeeles
organelles inside cells. some are membranous, some are not.
nucleus all cells have one. contains genetic material. DNA.
nucleoli inside nucleus.
ribososmes site of protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum folded. extends from nucleus into cytoplasm. rough ER has ribosomes. smooth ER is site of lipid synthesis.
golgi apparatus folded. packages material for secretion from the cell. goes into vesicles.
secretory vesicles. pinch off golgi and move things in and out of cells.
lysosomes contain enzymes for intracellular digestion
mitochondria bean shaped with inner folds. site of ATP synthesis. produces energy.
vaults contains proteins and RNA. transport role.
cilia many project from cells, move substances, mucus etc.
flagella long string from cell. usually one. sperm etc.
microvilli project from cells. increase surface area.
diffusion solute molecules move from higher concentration to lower.
osmosis diffusion of water across a semi-permiable membrane from higher conc. to lower conc.
filtration through a membrane in response to external pressure.
active transport transport across concentration gradient. requires ATP energy
endocytosis/exocytosis in and out of a cell through a vesicle
isotonic conc. is the same on both sides of the membrane.
hypertonic solution has higher conc.
hyprotonic solution has lower conc.
homeostasis existence and maintenance of constant environment in body, eg temperature.
Negative feedback maintains homeostasis. negates any change in the normal states.
positive feedback leads away from homeostasis. makes change bigger.
four tissue types connective, epithelial, muscle, nervous
epithelial covers body surfaces. little extracellular material. has basement membrane.
simple squamous one layer. flat cells. diffusion. alveoli.
simple cuboidal one layer. square cells. secretion and absorbtion. kidneys.
simple columner one layer. tall and thin. may have microvilli, cilia, goblet cells.
pseudostratified appears to be stratified, but is simple.line trachea etc.
stratified squamous many layers. flat cells. keratinized/unkeratinized. outer layer of skin etc.
transitional many layers. can be stretched. changes from cuboidal to squamous as it's stretched. bladder.
glands structure that secretes substances.
exocrine glands have ducts. may be simple, branched and tubular.
endocrine glands no ducts. directly into the blood.
connective tissue (C) cells and extracellular matrix.joins cells and tissues. protection. support.
collagen C most common protein.flexible, hard, fibrous.
dense connective tissue C ECM made of mostly of collagen fibres..tendons etc.
loose connective tissue C protein fibres separated. fills space between organs. around glands, muscles etc.
apidose tissue C not typical. protects organs. loose connective.
Cartilage C made of chondrocytes. collagen matrix.strong. no blood supply.
hyaline cartilage C most abundant cartilage. covers bone ends in joints. strong, smooth.
Fibro cartilage C more collagen. resists compression and tearing. intervertabral discs in spine.
elastic cartilage C elastic protein fibre. collagen and ground substance. recoils when bent.
bone tissue C hard. has living cells and mineral matrix. osteocytes within the matrix. rigid matrix.
blood tissue C fluid matrix. blood cells move freely. transport.
Muscle tissue (M) contact and shorten.longer than wide.muscle cells=fibre.
Skeletal M several nuclei. striated. voluntary control. long.
Cardiac M heart. involuntary. cylindrical. striated. one nucleus. connected by intercalated discs.
smooth M walls of hollow organs. tapered. one nucleus. non-striated. involuntary.
Nervous tissue brain, spinal cords, nerves. controls body actions.
skin largest and thinest oragn. made of dermis and epidermis.
skin functions protection. flexibility. excretion. temp. regulation. Vit D production. sensation. excretion.
epidermis top layer. stratified squamous. cells produced by mitosis in deep layer.during movement up cells undergo keratinasation, makes them stronger. 5 layers. shed and regenerated.
5 epidermis layers basale. spinosum. granulosum. lucidum. corneum.
dermis 2 layers. deep connective tissue. fibroblasts, fat cells, macrophages.
2 dermis layers reticular. papillary.
reticular layer collagen and elastic fibres. strength. produce cleavage lines.
papillary layer projections (papillae) into epidermis. form finger prints. supply epidermis with nutrients. remove waste. regulates body temp.
hypodermis not part on integumentary system. beneath the dermis.
Hair shaft Above epidermis. Contains medulla, cortex, cuticle.
Hair Hair shaft, root, hair bulb, hair follicle.
Arrector pili Muscles. Contract. Make hair stand up.
Glands Sebaceous, holocrine. Connected to hair follicle. Make sebum, lubricates.
Merocrine sweat glands All skin. Lots in palms and soles. H2O and salt. Temp. Reg.
Apocrine Thick secretion. Organic substances. Hair follicles axillae and genitalia. Bacteria = BO
Nails Distal digits. Dead stratum corneum. Nail body, nail root. Cuticle. Nail matrix, lunula
Skeletal system Protection, muscle attachments, mineral storage, blood cells, structure and support
Axial skeleton Head, neck and trunk
Appendicular skeleton Limbs and girdles(pelvis and shoulders)
Bone shapes Long, short, flat, irregular
Long bones Diaphysis (shaft), epiphysis (ends), epiphyseal plate (site bone growth), epiphyseal line (mature plate). Medullary cavity, periosteum, endosteum. Articular cartilage
Medullary cavity Hollow cavity in shaft. Yellow marrow
Periosteum Thick fibrous vascular membrane. Covers bone
Endosteum Connective tissue membrane lining medullary cavity
Articular cartilage Hyaline cartilage on articulating surfaces of bones. Stops friction
Compact bone Hard, dense. Periphery skeletal structure
Cancellous bone Spongy lattice like, bony plates and trubeculae. End of long bones
Osteocytes Bone cell. Mature, surrounded by matrix. In lacunae
Osteoblasts Bone cell. Forms bone. Germ
Osteoclasts Reabsorbing. Breakdown minerals. Change
Lacunae Hollow within bony tissue. Osteoblasts are here.
Lamellae Thin leaf or plate of bone. Matrix
Canaliculi Small tube/channel
Haversian canal Tiny, longitudinal canal. Blood vessels.
Haversian system Osteon. Circular region of bone tissue. Rings of osteocytes and lamellae around blood vessel
Hyaline cartilage Common, glassy. Covers articulating surfaces. Forms costal cartilage
Elastic cartilage Flexible. External ear
Fibrocartilage Intervertebral discs. Points of attachment (tendons to bones)
Skull bones Mandible, maxilla, frontal, parietal, temporal,, occipital, sphenoid
Spine bones Cervical vert(7), thoracic vert(12), lumbar vert(5), sacrum, coccyx. Hyoid.
Ribcage Ribs(12 pairs), sternum.
Pectoral girdle Scapula, clavicle
Arms and hands Humerus, ulna, radius, carpals(8), metacarpals(5), phalanges(14)
Pelvic girdle Ilium, ischium, pubis
Leg and feet Femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals(7), metatarsals(5), phalanges(14), calcaneus
Articulation Point where two bones join. Structure and function
Tendon Tough, fibrous, connective tissue. Connects muscles to bones.
Ligament Tough, fibrous, connective tissue. Connects bone to bone
Fibrous joints Little of no movement. Sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
Sutures Fibrous. Between skull bones. Fontanelles in new borns, harden over time
Syndesmoses Fibrous. Bones seperated and held with ligaments.
Gomphoses Pegs in sockets. Held by ligaments
Cartilagenous joints Two bones connected by cartilage. Slight movement
Synovial joints Freely moving. Contains synovial fluid, in synovial cavity.
joint cavity filled w/ synovial fluid. enclosed by joint capsule, hold bones together. ligaments, joint stability. synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, lubrication. bursae
synarthosis fibrous, immovable joints.
amphiarthroses cartilaginous, slightly movable joints
diarthroses synovial, freely moving joints
types of synovial joints plane/gliding, saddle, hinge, pivot, ball and socket
plane/gliding joints two flat surfaces glide over each other. carpals/tarsals
saddle joints two saddle shapes. movement in two planes. base of thumb.
hinge joints concave and convex. one plane. elbow/knee
pivot joints rotation on axis. between atlas and axis.
ball and socket joints head and socket. wide range of movement. shoulder/hip
muscle groups skeletal, smooth, cardiac
skeletal muscle movement, posture, expression, respiration. endomysium surrounds muscle fibre in fascicle. fascicle surrounded by perimysium, then epimysium, then fascia is outer layer.
muscle contraction voluntary or involuntary. controlled by somatic motor nervous system.
muscle tone constant tension produced while maintaining posture
muscle attachments attach to articulating bones. one bone moves. origin/insertion.
origin on the bone that doesn't move
insertion bones that move
muscle action act in groups. agonist/prime mover, antagonists, synergists, fixator
agonist/prime mover group performs specific action
antagonists oppose the agonists
synergists contract at same time as prime movers
fixator joint stabiliser. balance when prime movers contract.
smooth muscle line blood vessels, digestive, reproductive tract. no striations. slow to contract. controlled by autonimic nervous system (involuntary)hormones regulate movement. single unit/multi-unit.
actin and myosin myofilaments in muscle fibre. dark and light colour, gives muscle striated appearance.
cardiac muscle only found in heart. striated. auto rythmic
Sternocleidomastoid O=sternum, clavicle. I=temporal bone. Flexes head and neck
Trapezius O=occipital protuberance, thoracic and cervical vertebrae. I=clavicle, scapula. Extends head and neck
Rhomboid O=t1-t4 vert, c6-c7. I=scapula. Moves scapula.
Latissimus dorsi O=vertebrae, ilium crest, lumbodorsal fascia. I=humerus. Extends and adducts arm.
Pectoralis minor O=ribs 2-5. I=scapula. Pulls down shoulder girdle
Pectoralis major O=clavicle, sternum, costal cartilage of tru ribs. I=humerus. Flexes arm, adducts arm anteriorly.
Serratus anterior O=ribs 8-9. I=scapula. Shoulder down, rotates
External intercostal O=ribs. I=rib below O. Elevates ribs.
Internal intercostals O=ribs. I=rib below O
Rectus abdominis O=pelvis. I=sternum. Trunk.
External obliques O=ribs. I=pelvis, linea alba. Trunk.
Internal obliques O=Pelvis, lumbodorsal fascia. I=ribs, linea alba. Pelvis/trunk
Transverse abdominis O=ribs, pelvis, lumbodorsal fascia. I=pubic bone, linea alba, ribs. Trunk.
Deltoid O=clavicle, scapula. I=humerus. Arm
Biceps brachii O=scapula. I=radius. Supinates the forearm and hand
Brachialis O=humerus. I=ulna. Flexes pronated forearm
Triceps brachii O=scapula, humerus. I=ulna. Extends lower arm
Gluteus maximus O=ilium, sacrum, coccyx. I=femur. Thigh
Gluteus medial/minimus O=ilium. I=femur. Thigh
Adducters Brevis, longus, magnus. O=pubic bone. I=femur. Adducts thigh
Quadriceps rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
rectus femoris O=ilium. I=tibia. extends the leg.
Vastus lateralis/medialis/intermedius O=femur. I=Tibia. extends the leg.
Hamstrings biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
biceps femoris O=ischium, femur. I=fibula, tibia. leg/thigh
semitendinosus/semimembranosus O=ischium. I=tibia. leg/thigh
tibialis anterior O=tibia. I=tarsal, metatarsal. foot.
gastrocnemius O=femur. I=tarsal. foot.
epimysium surrounds entire muscle organ
perimysium surrounds a fascicle(bundle) of muscle fibres
endomysium surrounds individual muscle fibres
muscle shapes long, convergent, pennate, fusiform, spiral, circular
Created by: black_sheep