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Medical Term

Chapter 7

Arteriole Small artery
Calyx or Calix Cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis
Catheter Tube for injecting or removing fluids
Cortex Outer region of an organ; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney
Creatinine Nitrogenous waste excreted in urine
Creatinine Clearance A measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing (clearing) creatinine from the blood
Electrolyte Chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. Are necessary for functioning of muscles and nerves, Kidneys maintain the proper balance of Elec and water in blood
Erythropoietin (EPO) Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells by bone marrow
-poietin a substance that forms
Filtration Process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter. In the kidney, blood pressure forces materials through the filter
Glomerular capsule Enclosing structure surrounding each glomerus. The glomerular capsule if also known as Bowman capsule and it collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus
Glomerulus Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the kidney
Hilum Depression in an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
Kidney One of two bean shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar ragion; Filters nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream to form urine
Meatus Opening or canal
Medulla Inner region of an organ. The renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney
Nephron Combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorbtion and secretion take place in the kidney. It is the functional unit of the kidney, each capable of forming urine by itself. There are about 1 million nephrons in the kidney
Nitrogenous waste Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in the urine
K+ (potassium) An electrolyte regulated by the kidney so that a proper concentration is maintained within the blood. K+ is essential for allowing muscle contraction and conduction of nervous impulses
Reabsorbtion Process whereby renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream
Renal artery Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney
Renal tubule Microscopic tubes in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration
Renal vein blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart
Renin Hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels)
Na+ An electrolyte regulated in the blood and uringe by the kidneys; needed for proper transmission or nerve impulses, heart activity and other metabolic functions
Trigone Triangular area in the urinary bladder
Urea Major nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
Ureter One of the two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
Urethra Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
Uric Acid Nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
Urinary bladder Hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores nutrients
Urination (voiding) Process of expelling urine; also called micturition
Cali/o, Calic/o Calyx (calix)
Cyst/o Urinary bladder
Glomerul/o Glomerulus
Meat/o meatus
Nephr/o kidney
Pyel/o renal pelvis
Ren/o kidney
trigon/o Trigone (region of the bladder)
Ureter/o ureter
Urethr/o urethra
Vesic/o Urinary bladder
Albumin/o Albumin
Azot/o Nitrogen
Bacteri/o bacteria
dips/o thirst
kal/o potassium
Ket/o, Keton/o ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
Lith/o stone
Natr/o sodium
Noct/o night
Olig/o scantly
-poietin substance that forms
py/o pus
-tripsy Crushing
Ur/o urine(urea)
Urin/o urine
-uria urination; urine condition
Glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney
Interstitial nephritis Inflammation of the connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules
Nephrolithiasis Kidney stones (renal calculi)
Nephrotic syndrome Group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) Multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and on the kidney
Pyelonephritis Inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyme
Renal hypertension High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
Wilms tumor Malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood
Bladder cancer Malignant tumor of the urinary bladder
Diabetes insipidus Antidiuretic hormone is not secreted adequately, or the kidney is resistant to its effect
Diabetes mellitus Insulin is not secreted adequately or not used properly in the body
Blood urea nitrogen measurement of urea levels in blood
Creatinine clearnace Measurement of the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney
CT Scan X-ray images show multiple cross-sectional and other views of organs and tissues
Kidneys, ureters and bladder (KUB) X-ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters and bladder
Renal Angiography X-ray examination (with contrast) of the blood vessels of the kidney
Retrograde pyelogram (RP) X-ray iaging of the renal pelvis and ureters after injection of contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters from the bladder
Voiding cystourethrogram X-ray record (with contrast) of the urinary bladder and ureters obtained while the patient is voiding
Ultrasonography Imaging of urinary tract structures using high-frequency sound waves
Radioisotope scan Image of the kidney after injecting a radioactive substance (radioisotope) into the bloodstream
Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) Changing magnetic field produces images of the kidney and surrounding structures in three planes of the body
Cytoscopy Direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder
Process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the blood Hemodialysis & Peritoneal dialysis (PD)
Hemodialysis uses an artificial kidney machine that receives waste-filled blood from the patients bloodstream, filters it and returns the dialized blood to the patients body
Ateriovenous fistula communication between an artery and vein
Peritoneal Dialysis Uses a peritoneal catheter to introduce fluid into the peritoneal cavity
Lithotripsy Urinary tract stones are crushed
Renal Angioplasty Dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries
Renal Biopsy Removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examination
Renal Transplantation Surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient
Urinary catheterization Passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder
Urinalysis Findings: Color Color: normal urine color is amber (yellow) or straw-colored. Colorless-indicates a large amount of water in the urine. Smoky red or brown color of urine indicates the presence of large amounts of blood
Urinalysis Findings: Appearance Normally urine should be clear. Cloudy or turbid urine indicates a urinary tract infection with pus and bacteria
Pus Pyuria
Urinary Findings: pH
Urinary Findings :Protein
Urinary Findings: Glucose
Urinary Findings: Ketones
Urinary Findings: Bilirubin
Urinary Findings: Specific gravity
Urinary Findings: Sediment and cast
Urinary findings: WBC
Urinary Findings: specific gravity
Urinary Findings: PKU (phenylketonuria)
Created by: s.fitzpatrick410