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Medical Term

Chapter 5

Gastrointestinal tract Begins with mouth and ends with the anus
Functions of Digestion 1. Ingestion 2.Digestion 3. Absorbtion 4. Elimination
Ingested Food taken into mouth
Digested Broken down, mechanically and chemically
Amino acids small building blocks of proteins
Glucose A simple sugar
Fatty acids & triglycerides 3 parts fatty acids and one part glycerol
Absorbtion Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
Elimination elimination of solid waste materials that cannot be absorbed into blood stream
Cheeks Form walls of oval shaped oral cavity
Lips Surround the opening cavity
Hard palate Forms anterior portion of roof
Soft palate Lies posterior to hard palate
Rugae Irregular ridges in the mucous membrane covering the anteruor portion of the hard palate
Uvula Small soft tissue projection, hangs from the soft palate
Tongue extends across oral cavity and its muscles attach to lower jaw
Mastication Chewing
Deglutition Swallowing
Papillae Small raised areas on the tongue, contains taste buds
Tonsils masses of lymphatic tissue located in depressions of the mucous membranes, lies on both sides if the oropharynx
Gums fleshy tissue surrounding the sockets of the teeth
Teeth 32 permanent teeth in oral cavity
Different teeth Central incisor, lateral incisor, Canine, First premolar, Second premolar, First molar, Second molar, Third molar(wisdom)
Labial surface incisor and canine teeth, nearest the lips
Buccal surface Premolar and molar teeth, lies adjacent to the cheek. Side toward the cheek
Facial surface both the labial and the buccal surface
Labi/o lip
bucc/o cheek
Faci/o face
Lingu/o Lingual
Lingual surface on the side of the tooth directly opposite the facial surface. Side toward the tongue
Mesial Lies nearer to the median line
Distal surface Lies farther from the medial line
Occlusal surface occlusion means closing. The crease where both sides meet
Incisal edge both canines and incisors have this sharp edge
Crown shows above the gum line
Root lies within the bony tooth socket
Enamel Protects the tooth, Dense hard white substance, hardest substance in body
Dentin The primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
Cementum Covers, protects, and supports the dentin in the root
Peridontal membrane Surrounds the cementum and holds the tooth in place in the tooth socket
Pulp Lies underneath the dentin. Soft & delicate tissue fills the center of the tooth
Root canal/Pulp canal contains blod vessels, nerve endings, connective tissue, and lymphatic vessels
Salivary glands Surround and empty into the oral cavity
Saliva Produced by salivary glands. Lubricates the mouth
Enzymes important digestive enzymes as well as healing growth factors such as cytokines
Saliva is released from : 1. Parotid gland, 2. Submandibular gland, 3. Sublingual gland
Pharynx/throat About 5 inches long, muscular tube. Lined with a mucous membrane. Serves as a passageway for air traveling from the nose to the windpipe and for food traveling from the oral cavity to the esophagus
Esophagus 9- 10 inch muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach
Deglutition swallowing
Epiglottis Covers the trachea so that food cannot enter and become lodged there.
Peristalsis involuntary, progressive rythmic contraction of muscles in the wall of the esophagus propelling a bolus down toward the stomach
Stomach has 3 main parts Fundus, Body and Antrum
Fundus Upper portion of stomach
Body Middle section of stomach
Antrum Lower portion of stomach
Sphincters Control the opening into and leading out of the stomach
Lower Esophaeal sphincter Relaxes and contracts to move food from the esophagus into the stomach
Pyloric Sphincter Allows food to leave the stomach when it is ready
Rugae folds in the mucous membrane lining the stomach
Pepsin To being disgestion of proteins
Hydrocloric acid rugae produces this digestive gland
Small intestine 20 ft from pyloric sphincter to first part of large intestine. 3 parts, duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Duodenum 1 ft long, Receives food from stomach as well as bile from liver and gallbladder and pancreatic juice from the pancreas. Enzymes and bile help digest food before it passes into the second part of the small intesting jejunum
Jejunum 8 ft long. Connects with ileum
Ileum 11 ft long, attaches to first part of long intestine
Villi microscopic projections that line the walls of the small intestine. Tiny capillaries in the villi absorb digested nutrients into the bloodstream and lymph vessels
Large intestine Extends from he end of the ileum to the anus. 3 main components, cecum, colon and the rectum. Absorbs most of the water within the waste material
Cecum First part of large intestine. Pouch on the right side that connects to the ileum at the ileoceal valve(sphincter)
Appendix Hangs from the cecum. No clear function, can become inflamed and infected when clogged or blocked
Colon Large intestine, consisting of cecum. The ascending, transverse and descending segments, and sigmoid of the colon.5 ft long.
Ascending color Extends from the cecum to the under surface of the liver, where it turns to the left to become the transverse colon
Transverse colon Passes horizontally to the left toward the spleen and then turns downward into the descending colon
Sigmoid colon Shaped like an 'S'. Begins at the distal end of the descending colon and leads into the rectum
Rectum Terminates in the lower opening of the gastrointestinal tract, the anus
Defacation expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus. Diarrhea or passage of watery stools results from the reduced water absorption into the bloodstream through the walls of the large intestine.
Liver Manufactures a thick, orange -black,sometimes greenish fluid called bile. Located in RUQ
Ble digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
Bilirubin Pigment released by the liver in bile
Jaundice(hyperbilirubinemia) When the bilirubin remains in the bloodstream. It happens if a bile duct is blocked or the liver is damaged and unable to excrete bilirubin into the bile.
Hepatic duct continuous bile is sent here and then to the cystic duct
Cystic duct Leads to the gallbladder
Gallbladder A pear shaped sac under the liver, which stores and concentrates the bile for later use. After meals, the gallbladder contracts, forcing the bile out the cystic duct into the common bile duct
PancreaS Secrete pancreatic juices that are released into the pancreatic duct
Pancreatic duct Joins with the common bile duct just as it enters the duodenum, and that receives a mixtures of bile and pancreatic juices
Emulsification Bile breaks apart large fat globules, creating more surface area so that enzymes from the pancreas can digest the fats
Function of liver Maintaining glucose levels. Liver removes glucose from the bloodstream and stores it as glycogen in liver cells. 2. Manufacturing blood proteins, like those for blood clotting 3. Releasing bilirubin 4. Removing poisons from the blood
Glyconeogenisis When the blood sugar level becomes dangerously low, the liver converts stored glycogen back into glucose
Gluconeogenisis When the liver converts proteins and fats into glucose, when the body needs sugar
Portal Vein Brings blood to the liver from the intestines.Digested foods pass directly after being absorbed in the capillaries of small intestine, giving liver first change for nutrients
Pancreas Organ under the stomach; produces insulin( for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods).Both an endocrine and an exocrine organ. Produces enzymes to digest starch(amylase, lipase, protease)
Amyl/o Exocrine gland: ExoStarch
amylase Enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
-ase enzyme
Prote/0 Protein
Insulin Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
anus terminal end or opening of the digestive tract
Common bile duct Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called the choledochus
Duo 2
Den 10
An/o Anus
Append/o appendix
Appendic/o appendix
Bucc/o Cheek
Cec/o Cecum
Celi/o Belly, abdomen
Cheil/o Lip
Cholecyst/o Gallbladder
Choleduch/o common bile duct
Col/o Colon, large intestine
Colon/o Colon
Dent/i Tooth
Duoden/o Duodenum
Enter/o intestines, usually small intestines
Esophag/o esophagus
Faci/o Face
Gastro/o Stomach
Gingiv/o Gums
Gloss/o Tongue
Hepat/o Liver
Ile/o Ileum
Jejun/o jejunum
Labi/o Lip
Lapar/o Abdomen
Lingu/o Tongue
Mandibul/o Lower jaw, mandible
Odont/o tooth
Or/o Mouth
Palat/o Palate
Pancreat/o pancreas
Peritone/o peritoneum
Pharyng throat
Proct/o Anus and rectum
Pylor/o Pyloric sphincter
Rect/o rectum
Sialaden/o salivary gland
Sigmoid/o Sigmoid colon
Stomat/o mouth
Uvul/o uvula
Amyl/o Starch
Bil/o gall, bile
Bilirubin bilirubin
Chol/e gall, bile
Chlorhydr/o hydrocloric acid
Gluc/o sugar
Glyc/o sugar
glycogen/o glycogen,animal starch
Lip/o fat, lipid
Lith/o stone
Prote/o protein
Sial/o saliva, salivary
Steat/o fat
-ase enzyme
-chezia defecation, elimination of wastes
-iasis Abnormal condition
-prandial Meal
Eti/o Cause
Idi/o Unknown
Sign is an objective find indicating the presence of disease as perceived by an examiner
Symptom Is an subjective sensation or change in health as experienced by the patient
Anorexia lack of appetite
-orexia appetite
Ascites Abnoraml accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
Borborygmus Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract
Constipation Difficulty in passing stools
Laxatives & Catharics Medications to promote movement of stools
Diarrhea Frequent passage of loose, watery stools
Dysphagia Difficulty in swallowing
Eructation Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
Flatus Gas expelled from the anus
Hematochezia Passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum
Juandice (icterus) Yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood
Melena Black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
Nausea Unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit
Steatorrhea Fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter
Aphthous stomatitis(canker) Inflammation of the mouth with small painful ulcers
Dental caries Tooth decay
Herpetic Stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpesvirus
Oral leukoplakia White plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth
Peridontal disease Inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone
Gingivitis Occurs as a result of dental plaque and dental calculus or tartar( yellow -brown calcified deposit on teeth)
Achalasia Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES)muscle to relax
Esophageal cancer Malignant tumor of the esophagus
Esophageal varices Swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus
Gastric cancer malignant tumor of the stomach
Gastrointestinal refulx disease (GERD) Solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
Hernia Protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it
Peptic ulcer Open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum
Anal Fistula Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
Colonic polyps Polyps protrude form the mucous membrane of the colon
Colorectal cancer Adenocarcinoma of the color or rectum, or both
Crohn Disease Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract ( terminal ileum and colon)
Diverticulosis Abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall
Dysentery Painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infection
Hemorrhoids Swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region
Ileus Loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines
Intussuception Telescoping of the intestines
Irritable bowel syndrome Group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension
Ulcerative colitis Chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers
volvulus Twisting of the intestine on itself
Cholelithiasis Gallstones in the gallbladder
Cirrhosis Chronic disease of the liver
Pancreatic Cancer Malignant tumor of the pancreas
Viral Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus
Created by: s.fitzpatrick410