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Path 9 Environmental


leading global cause of morbidity and premature death Undernutrition
70% of all child deaths are attributed to only 5 conditions pneumonia, diarrheals, malaria, measles, perinatal/neonatal problems
leading cause of death in developed countries Ischemic heart and cerebrovasc diseases
cherry-red color of skin from high levels of carboxyhemoglobin CO poisoning
Causes brain damage (children)and periph n. demyelination (wrist/foot drop in adults) d/t inhibit neurotransmitters, interferes w normal fracture healing and cartilage remodeling, microcytic/hypochromic anemia (suppress heme synth) Lead
GI, cardio, and CNS probs due to interference w/ mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (replace the phosphates in ATP). Also, skin tumors on palms and soles Arsenic
obstructive lung disease due to necrosis of alveolar macrophages, and kidney damage (tubular damage that may progress to end-stage) Cadmium
most preventable cause of human death Smoking
exposure to vinyl chloride leads to ... hepatic angiosarcoma
thiamine deficiency -> periph neuropathies and Wernicke-Korsakoff synd (chronic alcoholics)
microcephaly, growth retardation, facial abnormalities, and reduced mental func FAS
increases risk of Breast CA and venous thromboembolism, but also has protective effect on development of atherosclerosis and coronary disease in women under age 60 HRT
associated with throboembolism and hepatic adenoma, increased risk of MI, reduced risk of endometrial and ovarian CA Oral Contraceptives
inhibits production and release of LH and FSH, and increases amount of estrogens  stunted growth, acne, gynecomastia, testicular atrophy (males) and facial hair, menstrual changes (women) testosterone in anabolic steroids
unconj NAPQI accum->hepatocell injury->centrilobular necrosis and liver fail Acetaminophen Toxicity - Tx w N-acetylcysteine w/in 12 hrs
alkalosis via stimulation of the resp center in medulla, followed by metabolic acidosis and accumulation of pyruvate and lactate, caused by uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of Krebs cycle Acute aspirin OD
manifests as headaches, dizzy, tinnitus, confusion, drowsy, nausea/vomit/diarrhea Chronic aspirin OD
sympathomimetic. block dopamine(CNS), epi/norepi(nerve endings) reuptake, w presynap norepi release->excess stim (tachy, HTN, periph vasoconstrict(MI)) Cocaine
can cause SUDDEN DEATH from resp depression, arrhythmia/cardiac arrest, and severe pulm edema Heroin
acts by releasing dopamine in the brain, which inhibits presynaptic neurotransmission at corticostriatal synapses->slows glutamate release. euphoria to crash, long term: violent, paranoid, hallucinations Meth
causes an increase in serotonin release in CNS, coupled w/ interference in serotonin synth->reduced serotonin MDMA (ecstasy)
Burn sites are ideal for growth of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, Candida
white or charred, dry, anesthetic (due to destroyed nerve endings) Full thickness burns
pink with blisters and painful Partial thickness burns
affects somatic compartment of proteins in skeletal muscle Marasmus
protein deprivation is greater than reduction in total cal, affects the visceral compartment of proteins in organs (liver), hypoalbuminemia->edema, flaky paint skin, loss of hair color, enlarged fatty liver Kwashiorkor
severe weight loss, fatigue, muscle atrophy, anemia, anorexia, edema from cancer Cachexia
Highest death rate of any psych disorder Anorexia - Bulimia is more common
From liver, fish, eggs, milk (preformed), carrots, squash, spinach. maintains vision, orderly differentiation of mucus epithel, also used for skin disorders (psoriasis). Def->Bitot spots, corneal ulcer, keratomalacia, xerophthalmia in eye Vit A
maintain Ca and P levels for metab func, bone mineralization, neuromusc transmit. Def->Rickets (kids), Osteomalacia (adults). Tox->calcification of soft tissue (kids), bone pain/hypercalc (adults) Vit D
Def->scurvy=bone disease(kids), hemorrhages and healing defects. also fights free radicals. Vit C
Created by: Jakphooey