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Sociology Exam 1


Sociology the study of human society -Socio - Society -ology -Study of or science of
Social Intitutions A complex group of interdependent positions that perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time
Comte First one to use "sociology" as a term 3 states of knowledge of society: theological, metaphysical and scientific
Karl Marx -founder of sociaology -Conflict between social classes drove historical social change -Labor power is utilized via the mode of production -proletariat, capitalist and Bougeoisie
Max Weber -founder of sociology -sociology is the study of how culture, economics, politics, and religion shape human understanding of the social world -provided first theories of authority, relationship, and bureaucracy -ideal more complicated than Marx
Emile Durkeim -founder of sociology -founded the first sociology department (in Paris, France) and the positivist approach to sociology -researched about division of labor in society, suicide, elementary forms of religious life
Georg Simmel -founder of sociology -first micro sociologist, unlike the others founders -focused on group interactions and social networks
Functionalism social institutions exist to serve a necessary role in society
Conflict Theory Conflict among competing interests i the basic force of sciety
Culture =Human-Nature -sum of social categories, concept, beliefs, behaviors, and practices that are not biological or instinctual
Subculture -emphasize difference from dominant culture -arise when a group is a target of prejudice and has social power
Counterculture -opposition to the dominate culture -conformity from members is very strict
Cultural Diversity Vastly different world cultures
Material Culture what people make and what they make it with
Language -allows us to communicate with other -develop a sense of self -transmit our culture -convey cultural attitudes about specific groups -shape our perspective of the world
Rituals -help culture cohere and persist -connect individuals to the culture -commemoration of key events in cultural history
Ideology understanding of cause and effects through cultural scripts
Norms cultural standards for behavior
Values -cultural ethical standards -foundation of norms
Forms and Politics of Consumer Culture -fads -fashion
sociological imagination The term sociological imagination was coined by the American sociologist C. Wright Mills in 1959 to describe the type of insight offered by the discipline of sociology.
who are founders of sociology? Comte,Marx, Weber, Durkeim, Simmel They wrote in response to the industrial revolution, mass urbanization and social dislocation of the 1800's.
what are the subfields of sociology?
What are the modern sociological theories? Functionalism, Conflict Theory, Symbolic Interaction and Dramatical Theory of social interaction
When and where did the field of sociology begin? late 1800's - early 1900's in France
According to Karl Marx, who will overthrow capitalism? proletariat and establish a utopia via socialism
According to Weber, what are the 3 elements to social stratification? -3 elements to social stratification: class, status group amd party
Ethnocentrism judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's one culture.
Cultural Relativism principle of regarding the beliefs, values and practices of a culture from the viewpoint of that culture itself.
What are the elements of culture? material culture, symbols, language, ritual, ideology, norms and values
Sapir-Worf Hypothesis shapes out perceptions of the world the environment people live in affects their language e.g. Eskimos
What is socialization? process by which you learn how to become a functioning member of society; internalizing the values, beliefs & norms; learn how to be part of a group; the interaction of massive numbers of unwritten social rules & cues
Nature vs. Nuture false dichotomy limits to socialization e.g. Genie
Cooley & Meade's Stage Theory of Development Self, Other, Process (imitation, play, games)
Agents of socialization people,groups or social institutions that socialize new members.
What are agents of socialization? family,school, religion, peers, media, total institutions, adult socialization (secondary), gender socialization & gender socialization
What is the primary unit of socialization? family
Where do you learn to take turns,share, gain knowledge, resolve conflicts and learn to speak? school
what place dominates adult socialization? workplace
What are the 5 types of social interaction socialization? Exchange, Competition, Conflict, Cooperation and Coercion
What is role theory? interaction occurs between people of different status & social rules.
What are the different types of statuses according to role theory? ascribed achieved master status set
What is a social role? duties & behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status
What is meant by role & dramatical theory? "All the world's a stage..." Social life is a theatrical performance. We act our social roles. We have scripts, costumes & sets. Goal: "save face"
Groups vs. crowds difference is level of group cohesion
What is a group? Groups for building blocks of society; size of group helps determine the form of social relations.
What are the various types of groups? dyads, triads, small groups, parties, large groups, primary and secondary groups, in-groups,out-groups and reference groups
Define dyad smallest group of 2 people most intimate mutually dependent
Define triad 3 or more not mutually dependent power politics can exist (mediator, tertius gaudens, divide Et Imperia)
What is the diffidence between groups: small, party & large? similar: all are larger than 3 people small g: face to face and unifocal, equality, no formal arrangements. party: multi-focal, many conversations at 1 time; large: formal structure, status diffrentiation
Compare in-group vs. out-group in-you feel belong to & positively out- not belong, feel negatively, object of hatred or violence
Compare reference vs. clique groups ref: groups around whose perceptions we orient out actions clique: organized around inclusion & eclusion
What are social networks? a set of relations held together by ties between individuals
Why do social networks matter? because they exert an important influence on the most crucial aspects of our lives; there are both long term and short term effects: embeddedness; strength of weak ties; weak ties bridge structural gaps
What is the importance of social networks? help maintain both weak and strong ties; help unite communities around despite interests
What are the types of social deviances? informal (Folkways-Etiquette), formal (crime; taboo) by definition: any transgression of socially established norms.
What is the definition of social control? mechanisms that create normative compliance among individuals
What are the types of social control? inner, outer Outer- informal sanctions;formal sanctions
What is Durkheim's functional perspective on deviance? He argued that social deviance promotes social cohesion, affirms cultural norms & values, clarifies moral boundaries, heightens group solidarity & encourages social change
Is Durkeim's theory macro or micro? macro
Is Labeling Theory macro or micro? micro
What is labeling theory? individuals notice how others see them & label them; reactions to those labels form the basis of their self identity
What is broken window theory? social context & social cues communicate if local social norms allow deviant acts; when people see disorder, they are more likely to engage in deviance themselves
What is crime? a violation of law enacted by society.
What are the types of crime? Violent, property & infractions, street, white- collar, cybercrime & hate crimes
What are the trends in crime? Crime has increased up until 1990. Crime has been decreasing since 1990.
Why is crime decreasing? Possible explanations: expanding economy, aging poplulation, longer jail sentences, declining sale of crack, cocaine, immigration by females, abortion, Little Brother sydrome
What is the definition of social theory? rooted in paradigms, they are frameworks that shape understanding of the social world, such as functionalism on symbolic interactions.systematic set of interrelated statements intended to explain some aspects of life. do not resolve value questions
What is the definition of social research? tries to find patterns of regularity in social life by systematically observing aggregates of individuals & the systems in which they operate, i.e. society
What is the definition of induction? collect data>analyze data>create theory
What is the definition of deduction? theory>hypothesis> operational concepts> collect data> analyze data to test hypothesis> accept, refine or reject hypothesis & theory
What three important functions does social theory provide? -logical predictions, explanations & hypotheses -makes sense of observed -direct empirical observation patterns
What is the definition of elements of measurement? Social scientists want to make valid claims about the social world. They use 3 types of validity: measurement, external and causal
What is the difference between causal validity vs. external validity? Causal looks at making conclusions or trying to find explanations. External, say be applied beyond the sample of cases they actually observed.
Discuss quantitative vs. qualitative methods qualitative methods: participant observation, intensive interviewing, content analysis historical and content research quantitative methods: survey used in social research, question and questionnaire design
Discuss principles of research ethics -individuals are autonomous agents and those with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection -do no harm or maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harm -assured social justice -Anonymity and Confidentiality
What three criteria must be met to make a causal claim? empirical association, temporal ordering & nonspuriousness
Created by: NickUD