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Chemical Textures


acid-balanced waves not true acid waves, as they have a ph between 7.8 and 8.2 and use glyceryl monthioglycolate(GMTG)as the primary reducing agent acid-balanced waves process at room temperature,do not require the added heat of a hair dryer,process more quickly
alkaline waves have a ph between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate(ATG)as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature.
amino acids small compounds that are made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and sometimes sulfur
ammonia-free waves perms use alkanolamines instead of ammonia, and are popular because of their low odor.
ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents
base control position on the rod in relation to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
base cream oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing
base direction the angle at which the tool is positioned on the head also the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped
base placement the position of the rod in relation to its base section, and is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped. rods can be wrapped on base, half off base, or off base.
base relaxers relaxers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer
base sections subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping;one rod is normally placed on each base section.
basic permanent wrap straight set wrap; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal sized bases all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length and width as perm rod
bookend wrap perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
bricklay permanent wrap perm wrap similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from each other row by row to prevent noticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair
chemical hair relaxing rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form.
chemical texture services hair services that cause a chemical change that permanently alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
concave rods perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends.
croquignole perm wrap perms in which the hair strands are wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers.
curvature permanent wrap perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head
double flat wrap one end paper is placed under and one end paper is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped
double-rod wrap also known as piggyback wrap; a wrap technique whereby extra long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction.
end papers end wraps; absorbant papers used to control the end
endothermic waves perm activated by an outside heat source usually a conventional hood type hair dryer
exothermic waves creates an exothermic chemical retion that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing
glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG) main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions
half off-base placement base control where the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees (perpendicular) to its base section and the tool is positioned half off its base section
hydroxide neutralization the neutralization of hydroxide relaxers is an acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by the hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair andd scalp.
hydroxide relaxers very strong alkalis with a pH over 13. The hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers
keratin protiens long, coiled polypeptide chains
lanthionization process by which hydrogen relaxers permanently straighten hair; breaks the hair's disulfide bonds during processing and converts them to lanthioine bonds when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair
loop rod Tool that is usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.
low-pH waves perms that work at a low pH and use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium
metal hydroxide relaxers ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium,potassiun, or lithium) combined with oxygen and hydrogen
no-base relaxers relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream
normalizing lotions conditioners that restore the hair's natural pH after a hyroxide relaxer prior to shampooing
off-base placement base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle 45 degrees below perpendicular to its base section and the tool is positioned completely off its base section
on-base placement base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45-degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section and the rod is positioned on its base section
peptide bonds The bonds connecting amino acids together to form polypeptide chains.
permanent waving a two step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical change caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods and then hair undergoes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer
polypeptide chains long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
single flat wrap perm wrap similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped
soft bender rods tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length. These soft foarm rods hace a stiff wire inside that permits them to be bent in to almost any shape
soft curl permanent combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger or looser
spiral perm wrap hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the grip on a tennis racket
straight rods perm rods that are equal in circumference along their entire length or curling area
thio neutralization stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebilds the hair in its new curly form
thio relaxers use the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used inpermanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10)
thio-free waves perm that uses cysteamine or mercaptamine instead of ammonium thioglycolate as the primary reducing agent
true acid waves perms that have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to speed the processing, process more slowly than alkaline waves and do not usually produce as firm a curl
viscosity the thickness of a fluid or a fluid's resistance to flow
weave technique wrapping technique that uses zigzag partings to divide base areas
Created by: samkohlenberg