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Water Operator Cert1

Study for the Water Operators Level 1 Certification Exam

Many sources of water are directly suitable for drinking purposes without treatment FALSE
Precipitant has significant microbial content FALSE
Many organisms that cause disease in humans originate with the fecal discharges of infected humans TRUE
Algal blooms rarely take place in the upper layer of water in a reservoir FALSE
When measuring turbidity, many small particles will reflect less light than an equivalent large particle FALSE
Operators should allow as much time as possible for the coagulation reaction FALSE
A Popcorn flake is a desirable floc appearance TRUE
Polymer powders on floors become extremely slippery when wet TRUE
Solids-contact units combine coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation in one basin TRUE
Low-turbidity source waters require sedimentation processes FALSE
Process water samples must be representative of actual plant conditions TRUE
Poor chemical treatment can result in early turbidity breakthrough or rapid heat loss build-up TRUE
Backwashing at too high a rate is much more destructive than at a too low rate TRUE
Particle counters can be used to indicate probable removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia TRUE
Organics can consume great amounts of disinfectants and form unwanted compounds TRUE
Free available residual chlorine has the highest disinfection ability TRUE
Use regular pipe fittings when making connections with containers FALSE
Always add acid to water, never the reverse TRUE
Electrical current and chemical reaction must be present for corrosion to occur TRUE
When Iron and copper are joined, iron will corrode, while copper is protected TRUE
Water containing very little hardness tends to be more aggressive TRUE
Increased nutrient levels may result from natural conditions or human activity TRUE
Cross connections are potentially very hazardous and a source of complaints TRUE
Superchlorination is followed by dechlorination for treatment of taste and odors TRUE
Process control measurements should be made on a continuous basis TRUE
An MSDS is your best choice for information on dangerous chemicals TRUE
Federal Law include sludge as an industrial waste and require proper disposal TRUE
Bad samples or bad lab results are as useful as NO results TRUE
Never pipet chemical reagent solutions or unknown water samples by mouth TRUE
Completely empty volumetric pipets by blowing out the small amount remaining in the tip FALSE (UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES)
What is the main responsibility of a water treatment plant operator? The main responsibility of a water treatment plant operator is to produce safe and pleasant drinking water
What is the cause of stratification in Lakes and reservoirs? Stratification is the formation of separate layers of temperature, plant life, or animal life.
How extensive should the treatment be for reclaimed water? The extent of treatment depends on the waters potential to reach the public
How can iron, manganese and hydrogen sulfide be controlled in a reservoir? by preventing the depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO)
What is the best tool for managing watersheds? regulatory process
What is destratification of a lake or reservoir? a vertical mixing to eliminate separate layers of temperature, plant, or animal life
What is the purpose of coagulation and flocculation? remove particle impurities, especially nonsettleable solids and color
After a jar test is completed, what does a hazy settled water indicate? Poor coagulation
How can the operator verify the effectiveness of the coagulation chemicals and dosages being applied to the flash mixer? perform a jar test
What happens to the settling rate (velocity) of particles in water when the water temperature drops? settling rate decreases as temperatures drop
What is the major means that operators control water treatment processes? Operators control by adjusting chemicals and chemical feed rates
What task should be performed immediately following dewatering of a sedimentation basin? grease and lube all gears, sprockets, and mechanical moving parts that have been submerged
How are filter production (capacity) rates measured? MGD
Why is a surface wash used during backwashing? to prevent mudballs
What do significant changes in source water turbidity levels require? (either increase or decrease) immediately verify the effectiveness of the filtration process
Why should a filter be drained if it is going to be out of service for a prolonged period of time? to avoid algae growth
Why has there been an increased interest in disinfectants other than chlorine? due to chlorines potential to form carcinogenic compounds (THMs)
What are the components of chlorine residual? combined chlorine forms plus free chlorine
Where should the minimum chlorine residual be measured in the distribution system? at the most remote location in the system
How are ORP probes used in the disinfection process? providing a direct measure of the disinfecting power of the disinfectant
Why are zinc and magnesium commonly used as sacrificial anodes in water tanks and buried pipes? because they corrode preferentially to aluminum and iron
Why should samples for corrosivity tests be taken only after postchlorination? because disinfection chemicals may increase or decrease corrosivity
Where are the monitoring samples for the Lead and Copper Rule collected? at the consumers tap
What is the secret to successful taste and odor control? prevention
Taste and odor treatments can be divided into which categories? removal and destruction
Where is powdered activated carbon often applied? at the flash mixer
Over which water quality indicator do operators have most control over? turbidity
Which chemical is the most dangerous of the common alkalides Causic soda
What should an operator do first when a treatment process upset results in a failure to meet specific drinking water quality standards? notify proper health authorities
Lab equipment used to measure the volume of liquid Pipets
Lab equipment used to titrate a chemical reagent? Burets
Which style thermometer will most rapidly change when removed from the liquid sample? Total immersion thermometers
What is the accepted method to measure turbidity? nephelometric method
The size of the water treatment plant, along with the number and specific processes it uses depends on what factors? 1. Cost 2. Population demands 3. Fire protection 4. Impurities in raw water 5. Water quality (Purity) standards
Which of the following tasks are typical duties of a water treatment plant operator? 1. Collect samples 2. Conduct safety inspections 3. Maintain records 4. Make periodic checks of plant equipment 5. Perform routine maintenance
What are the safety responsibilities of an operator? 1. Be aware of safety hazards around plant 2. Be part of an active safety program 3. Be sure everyone follows safe procedures 4. Ensure operators take safety seriously 5. Understand why safety procedures must always be followed
Possible sources of groundwater contamination includes? 1. Agricultural drainage systems 2. Entry of surface runoff into wells 3. Seawater intrusion 4. Seepage from septic tank leaching systems
What conditions are favorable for the rapid growth of algae blooms? Nutrients and temperature
What are the basic objectives that control operation of water treatment plants? 1. production of safe drinking water 2. production of aesthetically pleasing drinking water 3. Production of drinking water at reasonable cost 3.
Which of the following water quality problems may be related to algal blooms? 1. dissolved oxygen depletion 2. reduced chlorination efficiency 3. shortened filter runs 4. taste and odor problems
What is the impact from increased organic loadings on water treatment plants resulting from algae blooms? 1.high trihalomethane levels 2. increased chlorine demands 3. increased color 4. increased water treatment costs
On domestic water supply reservoirs that develop anaerobic zones, what water quality indicators should be monitored? iron, hydrogen sulfide, and manganese
What are commonly used coagulant chemicals? Alum, metallic salts, polymers
What factors are important when evaluating jar test results? 1. Amount of floc formed 2. the clarity of water between settled floc and between floc particles 3. floc settling rate 4. rate of floc formation
Operators of the coagulant-flucculation process are exposed to what safety hazards? 1. confined spaces 2. electrical equipment 3. rotating mechanical equipment 4. slippery surfaces 5. chemicals
What items are adjusted in the enhanced coagulation process? coagulant dosage and pH
What is the purpose of presedimentation facilities? even out fluctuations in suspended solids, provide an equalizing basin, reduce the solid-removal load at the treatment plant
Why is short-circuiting undesirable in a sedimentation basin? causes undesirable shorter: contact times, reaction times, and settling times
What kinds of changes cause instability in solids-contact units? rapid changes in flow, temp, and turbidity
Which water quality indicators should be monitored in the normal operation of the sedimentation process? temp and turbidity
Filter removal of turbidity depends on what factors?? 1. type of filter 2. operation of filter 3. types and degrees of pretreatment 4. chemical characteristics of water being treated 5. nature of suspended particles
Characteristics used to classify filter media 1. effective size 2. hardness 3. specific gravity 4. uniformity coefficient
how can you determine if a filter is not completely clean after backwashing? if the initial head loss is too high or the next filter run is too short
Indicators of abnormal filter conditions - algae on walls and media - media boils during backwash - media cracking or shrinkage - mudballs in media - short filter runs
What factors influence chlorine disinfection? - numbers and types of microorganisms - pH - reducing agents - temp - turbidity
Chloramines are effective in - killing heterotophic plate count bacteria - maintaining a detectible residual throughout the system - reducing the potential for coliform growth - reducing taste and odor problems
What are probable causes of a drop in chlorine levels in treated water? a decrease in feed rates, or an increase in demands
What physical factors influence the rate of corrosion? 1. flow velocity 2. Soil moisture 3. stray electric current 4. Temp of water 5. type of coating
How can you determine if a corrosion problem exists? - performing chemical tests - conducting flow tests - examining debris removed from the distribution system - noticing an increased number of leaks - responding to complaints
Monitored as corrosion-related water quality indicators - alkalinity - conductivity - pH - temperature
What are some damaging effects for a water utility resulting from a taste or odor episode? 1. funding restrictions 2. public relations problems 3. loss of public confidence
What are some locations that have been identified as possible source of tastes and odors? - consumers plumbing - conveyance facilities - water storage reservoirs - raw water sources - treatment plants
The success of chlorination as a taste and odor treatment depends on what factors? 1. contact time 2. dose applied 3. seriousness of problem 4. type of odor
What precautions should be taken when handling powdered activated carbon (PAC) 1. Use confined space safety precautions 2. Store PAC bags on wooden pallets away from flammable materials 3. Use dust control and protective clothing
Where is turbidity commonly monitored in a water treatment plant? each unit process (finished water and raw water trubidity are also commonly monitored)
Grab Sample A single sample of water collected at a particular time and place which represents the composition of the water only at that time and place
Reagent A pure chemical substance used to make new products or is used in chemical tests to measure, detect, or examine other substances
4 Zones in which a typical sedimentation basin are divided 1- Inlet Zone 2- Setting Zone 3- Sludge Zone 4- Outlet Zone
What is a grab sample used for to measure chlorine residual, coliform bacteria, dissolved gasses, pH, and temps
SDWA Safe Drinking Water Act
4 types of filtration that can be used to meet the requirements of the surface water treatment rule are: 1. Direct 2. Slow Sand 3. Conventional 4. diatomaceous earth filtration
contamination the introduction into water of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic substances, waste, wastewater, to a degree that makes the water unfit for intended use
disinfection the process to destroy MOST microorganisms in water
sterilization removal or destruction of ALL microorganisms , including pathogenic and other bacteria.
What are the 4 categories of contaminates? 1. physical (taste, temp, color, odor) 2. chemical (hard vs soft water) 3. biological 4. radiological
What are the 3 types of biological (or microbial) contaminants? 1. Bacteria 2. Virus 3. Protozoa
Which is the smallest of all contaminants? virus
List 5 properties of chlorine gas 1. greenish yellow liquid 2. 2 1/2 time heavier than air 3. expands at a rate of 450 to 1 (liquid to gas) 4. Non flammable 5. supports combustion (wont smother a fire)
list types of chemical disinfectants 1. Chlorine (chloramine, chlorine dioxide) 2. iodine (high cost, side effects to preg women) 3. bromine (handling difficulties) 4. bases -sodium hydroxide(high pH, bad taste) 5. ozone (no residual, hard to store)
List 4 factors that influence disinfection 1. pH of water (lower is better) 2. Temp of water (higher is better) 3. contact time 4. concentration
What are the physical means of disinfection? 1. ultraviolet rays 2. Heat (boiling - 5 min)
Chlorine leak kits A,B,C A- cylinder B- 1 ton container C- Box car
Chlorine leak around cylinder by using ammonia -will produce white smoke
Adit Intake structure
Treatment steps 1. raw water through screens to remove degree 2. pre chlorination (optional) 3. chemicals to flash mixture 4. coagulation / flocculation 5. sedimentation basins 6. filtration 7. post chlorination 8. add chemicals 9. clear well (chlorine contact ti
conductivity a measure of the ability of a solution to carry an electric current
streaming current meter optimize coagulant dosage
What is best pH range for coagulation 5-7
Created by: chunsaker