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Chapter 2

Medical Terminilogy

aden/o gland
adip/o fat
col/o colon
caud/o lower part of body, tail
cephal/o head
cyt/o cell
hepat/o liver
hyster/o uterus
hist/o tissue
lapar/o abdomen, abdominal wall
path/o disease, suffering, feeling, emotion
oste/o bone
retr/o behind, backward, back of
-stasis control, maintenance of a constant level
abdominal cavity contains primarily the major organs of digestion. frequently referred to as the abdomen
adenectomy the surgical removal of a gland
adenocarcinoma is a malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue
adenoma a benign tumor that arises in , or sesembles glandular tissue benign means not life threatening
adenomalacia the abnormal softening of a gland
adenosclerosis the abnormal hardening of a gland
anaplasia a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other
bloodborne transmission the spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood
caudal toward the lower part of the body
cephalic toward the head
chromosomes the genetic structur5es located within the nucleus of each cell
communicable disease any condition that is transmitted from one person to anoter either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects
congenital disorder is an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth
cytoplasm the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
distal means situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure,
dorsal refers to the front, or belly side of the organ or body
dysplasia is abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
endemic refers to oigoing presence
coron/o coronary, crown
nephr/o kidney
abdominal pertaining to the abdomen
abdominopelvic abdomen and pelvic cavities together, pelvic cavitiy forms the organs of the reproductive an excretory systems
adenitis inflammation of the glands
adenosis any disease condition of a gland
adipose aka fat, provides protective padding, insulation, and support and acts as a nutrient reserve
anatomy the study of the structures of the body
physiology the study of the functions of these structures
anomaly a deviation from what is regarded as normal
anterior situated in the front, or on the forward part of an organ
aplasia lack of development of an organ or tissue a-without plasia- formation
anaplasia` is a change in structure of cells and in their orientation to each other
ascites is an abnormal accumulation of clear or milky serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
coronal pertaining to the head or crown
cytology the study of the structure of cells, chromosomes, DNA, and genetics
deoxyribonucleic acid chromosomes are organized as 2 long, coiled molecules
endocrine gland which secrete hormones, do not have ducts
epidemic is a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a population group or area
epidemiologist specializes in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population group
epigastric located above the stomach
epithelial form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
etiology the study of the causes of diseases
exocrine such as sweat glands, secrete their chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body
geneticist a specialist in the field of genetics
hemophilia a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which one of the factors needed to clot the blood is missing
histologist is the specialist in the study of cells and microscopic tissues
histology study of the tissues, which are composed of cells that join together to perform specific functions
homeostasis homeo= maintaining a constant internal environment constant
hyperplasia is an abnormal increase in the numver of normal cells in normal arrangement in a tissue
hypochondriac means below the ribs or person with abnormal and excessive concern about his or her health
hypogastric region below the stomach
hypoplasia the incomplete development of an organ or tissue but is less sever in degree than aplasia
iatrogenic a problem such as a side effect or an unfavorable response, arising from a prescribed medical treatement
idiopathic is an illness with an unknown cause
iliac pertaining to the hip bones
infectious an illness caused by a pathogenic organism
inguinal the entire lower region of the abdomen is aka the groin
laparoscopy the visual exam of the interior of the abdomen with the use of a laparoscope
membrane is a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ
midsagittal aka the midline, the vertical plane that divides the body, from top to bottom, into equal left and right halves
nucleus which is surrounded by the nuclear membrane, is the structure with in the cell that has two important functions
pandemic refers to an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
parietal peritoneum is the outer layer of this membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
pathologist specializes in the study of lab analysis of tissue samples removed at operations and postmortem exam to confirm or establish a diagnos
pathology the study of structural and functional changes caused by disease
pelvic pertaining to the hip bone
peritoneum the membrane that protects and supports the organs in the abd. cavity
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
phenylketonuria is a genetic disorder in which an essential digestive enzyme is missing, it can be detected by a blood test at birth. If not detected and treated early it can cause mental retardation
posterior means situated in the back, it also means on the back part of an organ
proximal means situated nearest the midline
retroperitoneal located behind the peritoneum of the abdominal cavity
sagittal any vertical plane parallel to the midline that divides the body into unequal left and right portions
thoracic or chest cavity protects the heart and lungs,
transvers divides the body into superior and inferior portions
umbilical surrounds the umbilicus aka the belly button or navel
ventral refers to the front or belly side of the body or organ
Created by: jmwgreene