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Medical Terms

The Human Body in Health and Disease - Chapter 2

abdominal cavity the cavity containing the major viscera.
adenectomy The removal of all or part of the adenoid glands by surgery.
adenocarcinoma A malignant tumor formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue.
adenoma A benign tumor formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue.
adenomalacia abnormal softening of a gland
adenosclerosis abnormal hardening of a gland
anaplasia Reversion of cells to an immature or a less differentiated form, as occurs in most malignant tumors.-change in structure of cells and in their orientation to each other
anatomy the science of the structure of living organisms.
anomaly marked deviation from normal, especially as a result of congenital or hereditary defects.
anterior situated at or directed toward the front; opposite of posterior.
aplasia lack of development of an organ or tissue.
bloodborne transmission occurs through contact with blood or body fluids that are contaminated with blood.
caudal Of, at, or near the tail or hind parts; posterior.
cephalic Of or relating to the head.
chromosomes A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information.
communicable disease a disease that can be communicated from one person to another.
congenital disorder birth defect: a defect that is present at birth.
cytoplasm The protoplasm outside the nucleus of a cell.
distal Anatomically located far from a point of reference, such as an origin or a point of attachment.
dorsal Of, on, or relating to the upper side
dysplasia abnormal growth or development of cells, tissue, bone, or an organ.
endemic Prevalent in or peculiar to a particular locality, region, or people: ex. diseases endemic to the tropics.
endocrine glands Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct.
epidemic A widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time
epigastric region the upper central region of the abdomen.
etiology the study cause of a disease or abnormal condition
exocrine glands An externally secreting gland, such as a salivary gland or sweat gland that releases its secretions directly or through a duct.
functional disorder disorder showing symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified.
geriatrician Of or relating to the aged or to characteristics of the aging process.
hemophilia A medical condition in which the ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced, often due to lack of factor VIII.
histology The study of the microscopic structure of tissues.
homeostasis The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, esp. as maintained by physiological processes.
hyperplasia The enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the reproduction rate of its cells (#)
hypertrophy The enlargement of an organ or tissue from the increase in size of its cells. (size)
hypogastric region The lower part of the abdomen. An arbitrary division of the abdomen below the umbilical and between the two iliac regions.
hypoplasia underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells.
iatrogenic illness illness that is caused by a medication or physician.
idiopathic disease any disease arising from internal dysfunctions of unknown cause.
infectious disease a disease transmitted only by a specific kind of contact.
inguinal Of, relating to, or located in the groin.
medial Situated in the middle, in particular.
mesentery A fold of the peritoneum that attaches the stomach and other organs to the posterior wall of the abdomen.
midsagittal plane A vertical plane along the midline of the body dividing the body into right and left halves. Also called midsagittal plane.
nosocomial infection Nosocomial infections are ones that have been caught in a hospital.
pandemic Prevalent over a whole country or the world.
pelvic cavity the space bounded by the bones of the pelvis and containing the pelvic viscera.
peritoneum The serous membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering the abdominal organs.
peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum, typically caused by bacterial infection either via the blood or after rupture of an abdominal organ.
phenylketonuria An inherited inability to metabolize phenylalanine that causes brain and nerve damage if untreated.
physiology The branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts.
posterior Further back in position; of or nearer the rear or hind end.
proximal Situated nearer to the center of the body or the point of attachment.
retroperitoneal the anatomical space behind (retro) the abdominal cavity.
stem cells An undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism that is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type
thoracic cavity chest cavity: the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart.
transverse plane an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
umbilicus The navel.
ventral Relating to or situated on or close to the abdomen
vector-borne transmission indirect transmission of an infectious agent that occurs when a vector bites or touches a person.
genetic disorder pathologic condition caused by an absent or defective gene
Created by: 302449