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Cos General Sciences

Chapters 5-13 Review Questions

What is the primary purpose of regulatory agencies? Federal agencies set guidelines for the manufacturing, sale, and use of equipment and chemical ingredients. These guidelines also monitor safety in the work place and place limits on what types of services you can perform in a salon.
Round shaped bacteria Cocci
Short rod shaped bacteria Bacilli
Spiral or corkscrew shaped Baciteria Sprilla
What is MSDS? Material Safety Data Sheets
List the four types of organisms that cosmetologists must know about and remember. Bacteria, Fungi, Parasites, and Viruses
What are Bacteria? One celled microorganisms that both plant and animal characteristics.
What are the two main classifications of bacteria? Pathogenic and Non Pathogenic
What is Non pathogenic Bacteria? Harmless organisms that may perform useful functions
What is Pathogenic Bacteria? Harmful microorganisms that can cause disease or infection in humans when they invade the body.
What are three forms of pathogenic Bacteria Cocci, Bacilli, and Sprilla
What is cleaning? Removing all visible dirt and debris.
What is disinfecting? The process that uses specific products to destroy harmful organisms (except bacterial spores) on environmental surfaces.
What is Sterilizing? The process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores
Can a porous Item be disinfected? NO
Why is the study of Anatomy, Physiology, and Histology important to cosmetologists? Having an understanding how the human body functions as a integrated whole is a key component in understanding how a client's hair skin and nails may react to various treatments and services
What is anatomy? the study of the human body structures that can be seen with the naked eye and how the body parts are organized; it is the science and structure of organisms or of their parts.
What is Physiology? the study of the functions and activities performed by the body's structures.
What is Histology? (Microscopic anatomy) The study of tiny structures found in living tissues.
What are the four types of tissue found in the human body? Connective, Epithelial, Muscle, and Nerve
Name the 9 major organs found in the body. Brain, Eyes, Heart, Kidneys, Lungs, Liver, Skin, Stomach, and Intestines
Name the 11 main body systems. Circulatory, Digestive, Endocrine, Excretory, Integumentary, Lymphatic/Immune, Muscular, Nervous, Reproductive, Respiratory, and Skeletal
Name three types of muscular tissue in the body. Striated (skeletal), Notnstraited (smooth) and Cardiac
Name the types of blood vessels found in the body. Arteries, Arteriloes, Capillaries, Venules, and Veins
What is the composition of blood. Red and white cells, platelets, plasma, and hemoglobin
What are the two main types of glands found in the human body? Endocrine (ductless) and Exocrine (duct)
List the organs of the excretory system. Kidneys, Liver, Skin, Large Intestine, and Lungs
What is a skin lesion? Mark on the skin; may indicate an injury or damage that changes the structure of tissues or organs.
Name 5 disorders of the sebaceous glands. Closed Comedo (whitehead), Milia, Sebaceous Cyst, Seborric Dermatitis, Rosacea
Name 5 changes in skin pigmentation. Chloasma (liver spots), Nevus (birthmark), Lentigines, Leukorderma, Vitiligo.
What are three forms of skin Cancer. Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma
What are the two major causes of acne? Heredity and Hormones
What are UVA rays? Aging Rays
What are UVB rays? Burning Rays
What is contact dermatitis? An inflammation of the skin caused by having contact with certain chemicals or substances.
What is the technical term for the natural nail? Onyx
What protein is in the natural nail? Keratin
Describe the appearance of a normal, healthy nail. Firm but flexible, shiny, smooth, and unspotted with no wavy ridges, pits, or splits.
Name the parts of the natural nail unit. Nail Plate, Nail Bed, Matrix, Nail Cuticle, Eponychium, Hyponychium, Specialized Ligaments, and Nail Folds.
What part of the natural nail unit contains the nerves, lymph and blood vessels? Matrix
Name 8 nail disorders. Discolored Nails, Hangnail, Leukonychia Spots, Onychophagy, Bruised Nails, Ridges, Splinter Hemorrhages, Pincer Nails
What conditions do fungal organisms favor for growth? Warm, moist, and dark
What is pseudomanas aeruginosa? One of several common bacteria that can cause nail infection
Name two common causes of onycholysis. Trauma or allergic reaction
What are the 5 main structures of the Hair root? Hair Follicle, Hair Bulb, Dermal Papilla, Arrector Pili Muscle, and Sebaceous (oil) Glands.
What are the three layers of the hair shaft? Cuticle, Cortex, and Medulla
What is Keratinization? Process by which newly formed cells in the hair bulb mature, fill with keratin, move upward, lose their nucleus, and die.
What are polypeptide chains? A long chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
List the three types of side bonds. Hydrogen Bonds, Salt Bonds, Disulfide Bonds
What are they two types of melanin? Eumelanin (provides natural Dark brown to black) Pheomelanin (provides natural colors ranging from red and ginger to yellow and blond tones)
What are the two types of hair? Vellus and Terminal
What are the three phases of the hair growth cycle? Anagen (Growth) phase, Catagen Phase, and Telogen (resting)phase
What are the three most common types of abnormal hair loss? Adrogenic Alopecia, Alopecia Areata, Postpartum Aloppecia
Name two main types of Dandruff. Pityriasis Capitis Simplex, Pityriasis Steatoides
What 4 factors about the hair should be considered in a hair analysis? Texture, Density, Porosity, Elasticity
What is chemistry? The science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter and how matter changes under different conditions.
What is organic chemistry? The study of substances that contain the element carbon.
What is inorganic chemistry? The study of substances that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain the element hydrogen.
What is matter? Any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight).
What is an element? The simplest form of chemical matter, and element cannot be broken down into a simpler substance with out loss of identity.
What are atoms? The smallest chemical components (often called particles) of an element' structures that make up the element and have the same properties of the element.
Name three states of matter. Solid, Liquid, Gas
What is Oxidation-reduction (redox)? A chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced (by losing oxygen) and reducing agent is oxidized (gaining oxygen)
What is a solution? A stable physical mixture of two or more substances
What is a suspension? Unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid.
What is an emulsion? An unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that would normally not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier.
Define pH and the pH scale. Potential Hydrogen; A measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance. a range of 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral. Below 7 is acidic, above 7 is alkaline.
Define electric current. Flow of electricity along a conductor.
What is a conductor? Any material that conducts electricity
What is an insulator? Non conductor a material that does not conduct electricity
What are two types of electric current? Direct and Alternating
What is a volt (voltage)? Unit that measures the pressure and force that pushes electric current forward through a conductor.
What is an amp (ampere)? unit that measures the strength of electric current.
Define ohm. Unit that measures the resistance of an electric current
Define Watt. Unit that measures how much electric energy is being used in one second.
Define Kilowatt. 1000 watts
What is the function of a fuse? Prevents excessive current from passing through the circuit.
What is the purpose of a circuit breaker? Shuts off an electric circuit at the first indication of an overload
What is the purpose of grounding? completes an electric circuit and carries the current safely away.
What are the three main electric modalities used in cosmetology? Galvanic Current, Microcurrent, and Tesla High-Frequency Current
Define electromagnetic spectrum. Name given to all the forms of energy that exist
Define visible light. The part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can been seen. It makes up only 35% of natural light.
Define invisible light. Light at either end of the visible spectrum of light that is invisible to the naked eye.
What does LED represent? Light-emitting diode
List three main types of light therapy. Laser, LED, and Intense Pulse Light
Created by: mjsmale