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Textiles chapter 1-5

textile definitions

CHAPTER 1 1. TEXTILE a term originally applied only to woven fabrics, now generally applied to any flexible material that is composed of thin films of polymers or of fibers, yarns, or fabrics or products made of films, fibers, yarns, or fabrics.
2. FIBER any substance, natural, or manufactured , with a high length to width ratio possessing suitable characteristics for being processed into fabric; the smallest component, hair-like in nature, that can be separated from a fabric.
3. YARN an assemblage of fibers that is twisted or laid together so as to form a continuous strand that can be made into a textile fabric.
4. FABRIC a flexible planar substance constructed from solutions, fibers, yarns, or fabrics, in any combination.
5. GRAY,GREY,OR GREIGE GOODS unfinished fabrics.
6. FINISH any process that modifies appearances or enhances performance of gray goods (unfinished fabrics) .
CHAPTER 2 1. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Refers to the design or engineering of a product so that it has the desired sever-ability characteristics , appeals to the targeted market, can be made within an accepted -able time frame for a reasonable cost.
2. SERVICEABILITY describes the measure of a textile products ability to meet consumer's needs.
3. AESTHETICS addresses the attractiveness or appearance of a textile product.
4. DURABILITY describes the manner in which the product withstands use, that is the length of time the product is considered suitable for the use of which it was purchased.
5. COMFORT addresses the way textiles affect heat, air, and moisture transfer, and the way the body interacts with a textile product.
6. SAFETY considers a textiles ability to protect the body from harm.
7. APPEARANCE RETENTION considers how the product maintains its original appearance during use and care.
8. CARE describes the treatment required to maintain a textile product's original appearance and cleanliness.
9. COST is the amount paid to acquire , use, maintain, and dispose of a product.
10. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS focus on the effect that the production, use, or disposal of a textile has on the environment.
11. SUSTAINABILITY describes practices and policies that reduce environmental pollution.
12. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT examines the way the production, use, care, and disposal of a product affects the environment and the people involved with the product.
CHAPTER 3 1. Natural fibers are those that are in fiber form as they grow or develop and come from animal, plant, or mineral sources.
2. manufactured ( man- made )fibers are made into fiber from chemical compounds produced in manufacturing facilities and include some fibers as acrylic used in sweaters and awnings and Aramid used in bullet proof vests and brake liners.
3. Staple fibers are short fibers measured in inches or centimeters.
4. Filaments are long continuous fiber strands of indefinite length, measured in miles or kilometers.
5. Diameter/Denier large fibers are crisp, rough, and stiff. fine fibers are used to produce softer and more comfortable products such as apparel and bed lines. Denier is the weight or grams of 9,000 meters of fiber or yarn.
6. Surface Contour describes the outer surface of the fiber along its length.
7. Fiber Crimp refers to the weave ,bends, twists, coils, or curls along the length of the fiber.
8. Cover is the ability of a fiber to conceal or protect.
9. Luster = results from the way light is reflected by a surface.
10. Drape a fabric characteristic, is the way the fabric falls over a three-dimensional form like a body or a table.
11. Texture describes the nature of the textiles surface.
12. Hand is the way the textile feels to the skin.
13. Abrasion resistance the ability of a textile to withstand the rubbing it gets during use.
14. Flexibility is the ability to bend repeatedly without breaking.
15. Pilling is the information of balls of fiber on the fabric surface.
16. Strength (tenacity) is the ability to resists stress.
17. Elongation the degree to which a fiber may be stretched without breaking.
18. Absorbency is the ability of a fiber to take up moisture from the body or from the environment.
19. Hydrophilic absorb moisture readily.
20. Hydrophobic fibers have little or no absorbency.
21. Hygroscopic fibers absorb moisture without feeling wet.
22. Oleophilic meaning they have a strong affinity or attraction to oil.
23. Wicking is the ability of a fiber to transfer moisture along its surface.
24. Heat or thermal retention is the ability of a textile to hold heat.
25. Heat conductivity the ability to transfer heat through a fabric.
26. Heat sensitivity a fibers reaction to heat.
27. Resiliency is the ability of a fiber to return to its original shape after bending, twisting, or crushing.
28. Compressibility is resistance to crushing.
29. Dimensional stability is the ability of a fabric to retain its original size and shape through use and care, which is desirable.
30. Elasticity is the ability of a textile to return to its ordinal dimension or shape after elongation.
Chapter 4 1. Seed Fiber develop in the seed pod or boll from developing seeds . In order to use the fiber, it must be separated from the seed. The most important seed is cotton.
2. Bast Fiber is obtained from the stem and root of the plant.
3. Leaf fiber is removed from the veins or ribs of a leaf.
4. cotton important cash crop, pleasing appearance, comfort, easy care, moderate cost, and durability.
5. Length Staple length is very important because it affects how the fiber is handled during the spinning process, and it relates to fiber fineness and fiber tensile strength.
6. Upland (Gossypium hirsutum) the predominant type of cotton produced in the United States) are 7/8 to 1 1/4 inches in length and were developed from cottons native to Mexico and central America.
7. Long Staple cottons which are 1 6/16 to 1 1/2 inches in length , were developed from Egyptian and South America cottons.
8. Naturally colored cottons Naturally brown, rust, red, beige, and green colored cottons are commercially available. They deepen with age and care. colored cottons are shorter and weaker, less absorbent, and have less uniform properties that white cotton.
9. Properties of cotton (1) Aesthetics= soft pleasant luster or matte appearance. durability= is a medium strength fiber stronger when wet .
Properties of cotton (2) comfort = makes a very comfortable fiber for skin contact . Appearance retention = overall appearance retention is moderate , care can be washed with strong detergents and require no special care.
10. Organic cotton is produced following state fiber-certification standards on land where organic farming practices have been used for the last three years. no pesticides or fertilizers are used.
11. Transition cotton is produced on land where organic farming is practiced.
12. Green cotton cotton that has been wash with mild natural based soap but has not been bleached or treated with other chemicals , except natural dyes.
13. Conventional cotton describes all other cotton.
14. Bast fibers come from the stem of the plant the outer edge.
15. Processing: 16. Rippling = after harvesting, the seeds are removed by pulling the plant through a machine process. bacterial rotting process of decomposing pectin.
17. Retting bacterial rotting process of decomposing pectin.
18. Scutching a process that breaks or crushes the outer covering when the stalk are passed between fluted metal rollers.
19. Hackling coming were irregular fibers are separated from one another.
20. Cottonizing reduces a bast fiber to a length similar to that of cotton.
21. Properties of Flax (linen)(1) Aesthetics = Flax has a high natural luster that is softened by its irregular fiber bundles. Durability = flax is strong for a natural fiber.
Properties of Flax (linen) (2) Comfort = flax has a high moisture regain of 12 percent , and it is a good conductor of electricity with no static build up. Care= is resistant to alkalis, organic solvents, and high temperatures .
22. Ramie is also known as Rhea, grass-cloth, China grass and Army/Navy cloth.
23. Hemp hemp is coarse and stiffer than flax, resembles Flax under a macroscopic and microscopic.
24. Jute was the fiber used in Biblical times and was used as sackcloth.
25. Leaf fibers fibers obtained from a leaf or plant.
26. Pina obtained from the leaves of the pineapple.
27. Abaca is obtained from the leaves of the banana tree.
28. Sisal and Henequen related plants used for rope , twine, and brush bristles. Fibers are smooth ,straight ,and yellow.
29. Minor cellulosic Materials rush, sea grass, maize, or corn husks.
Chapter 5 1. Hygroscopic These fibers absorb moisture without feeling wet.
2. Merino sheep from Australia
3. Raw/grease wool newly removed wool, which contains between 30 and 70 percent by weight of such impurities as sand, dirt, grease, and dried sweat .
4. Clean/scoured wool Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water, or as complicated as an industrial process using detergent and alkali, and specialized equipment.
Lamb's wool comes from animals less than 7 months old.
6. Virgin wool wool that has never been processed.
8. Recycled Wool scraps of new woven or felted fabrics that are garnetted (shredded) back to the fibrous state and used.
9. Properties of wool (1) Aesthetics = because of its physical structure, wool contributes loft and body to fabrics. Durability = wool fabrics are durable.
10.Properties of wool (2) Comfort = wool is more hygroscopic than any other fiber. Appearance retention = wool is a very resilient fiber. Care = Wool does not soil readily , and the removal of soil from wool is relatively simple.
11. Mohair is the hair fiber from the Angora goat.
12. Qiviut a rare and luxurious fiber, is the under-wool of the domesticated Musk ox . Provides 6 lbs of wool each year.
13. Angora is the hair of the Angora rabbit produced in Europe.
14. Camel Hair is obtained from the two- humped Bactrian camel.
15. Cashmere is produced by a small cashmere goat raised in China.
16. Llama/Alpaca are domesticated animals of the South American branch of the camel family. Fibers are 8 to 12 inches in length , is known for its softness, fineness, and luster.
17. Vicuna/Guanaco are rare wild animals of the South American camel family.
18. Yak fiber is produced by a large ox found in Tibet and central Asia.
19. Silk: is a natural protein fiber. it is similar to wool in that it is composed of amino acids arranged in a polypeptide chain, but it has cross links.
20. Sericulture is the production of cultivated silk, which begins when the silk moths lay eggs on a specially prepared paper.
21. Sericine Two strands of silk are coated with a water-soluble protective gum.
22. Raw silk/silk-in-gum cocoons yield approximately 1,00 yards of usable silk filament.
23. Silk noils =( silk waste)Staple silk is produced were the filaments broke or where the moth was allowed to mature and come out. It is also produced by the inner portions of the cocoon.
24. Wild silk/Tussah production is not controlled , wild silk worms producing wild silk.
25. Duppioni another type of silk that results when two silkworms spin their cocoons together. the yarn is irregular in diameter with thick and thin appearance.
26. Momme pronounced "Mummy" describes the weight of the silk.
27. Properties of silk: (1) Aesthetics = Silk can be dyed into brilliant colors. Durability = Silk has moderate abrasion resistance. because of its end use and cost, silk seldom receives harsh abrasion.
28. Properties of silk: (2) comfort = Silk has good absorbency , with a moisture regain of 11 percent. Appearance retention = has moderate resistance to wrinkling. Care = Dry cleaning solvents do not damage silk.
29. Weighting fabrics treated with metallic salts to produce a better drape, covering power and dye absorption.
30. Scroop a natural rustle , which can be increased by treatment with an organic acid such as acetic or tartaric acid.
31. Review question # 7 Explain why wool is not more commonly used in apparel? It has to be cleaned with care like (Dry cleaning). What are the reasons you do not own more wool items. It feels itchy, and the maintenance of dry cleaning and it is not winter all year round.
Created by: 100001592513232