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US Hist

US Contemp world history

Progressivism Progressives believed that new ideas and honest, efficient government could bring about social justice. Progressive ideas brought lasting reforms that still affect society today.
muckraker journalists that dramatized and focused on the negative and wrote about the need for reform.
Lincoln Steffens One leading muckraker was Lincoln Steffens, managing editor at McClure's, a magazine known for uncovering social problems. In 1903, Steffens published The Shame of the Cities, a collection of articles on political corruption. His reports exposed how the g
Jacob Riis exposed the true nature of New York tenement dwellers. He often wrote articles and published stories on their horrible living conditions.
Social Gospel was written by Walter Rauschenbusch. He thought that Christianity should be the basis for social reform. He blended German socialism and American progressivism in his plans to build a new society. The social gospel taught others how to be just.
direct primary election in which citizens themselves vote to select nominees for upcoming elections
Referendum allowed citizens to deny or reject laws passed by legislature.
Jane Addams leading figure in the settlement house movement.
initiative gave people the power to put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting citizens' signatures on a petition.
Recall The recall gave voters the power to remove public servants from office before their terms ended.
Florence Kelley believed that women were hurt by the unfair prices of goods they had to buy to run their homes. Helped to find the NCL
NCL the National Consumers League gave special labels to "goods produced under fair, safe, and healthy working conditions" and urged women to buy them and avoid products that did not have these labels. Also asked the government to inspect meatpacking plants,
temperance movement aimed at stopping alcohol abuse and the problems created by it. E.G. domestic abuse and men spending their earnings on alcohol.
Margaret Sanger believed that womens health and home life would improve if they had less children. Founded the first birth controll hospital. Also founded the American Birth Controll league to make birth controll information available to more women.
Ida B. Wells helped find the NACW, who set up a daycare to protect and educate black children while their parents worked. Successfully blocked the establishment of segregated schools in Chicago. In 1930, she ran for the Illinois State legislature, which made her one o
Suffrage the right to vote.
NAWSA The National American Woman Suffrage Association
Alice Paul By 1917, Paul formed the National Woman's Party (NWP), which used public protest marches. The NWP became the first group to march with picket signs.
Nineteenth Amendment In June 1919, Congress approved the Nineteenth Amendment, which stated that the right to vote "shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex."
Florence Kelley helped form the Women's Trade Union League (WTUL), another group that tried to improve conditions for female factory workers. It was one of the few groups in which upper-class and working-class women served together as leaders. The WTUL pushed for federal
Americanization they teach imigrants English, their programs also tried to change how immigrants lived. They advised immigrants how to dress like white middle-class Americans and pushed them to replace the foods and customs of their homelands with protestant practices an
Booker T. Washington believed that African Americans had to achieve economic independence before civil rights.
W.E.B. Du Bois believed that black Americans had to demand their social and civil rights or else become permanent victims of racism.
Niagara Movement denounced the idea of gradual progress.
NAACP the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
aimed to help African Americans be "physically free from peonage [forced, low-paid labor], mentally free from ignorance, politically free from disfranchisement, and socially free from insult."
Urban League focused on poorer workers, helping families buy clothes and books and send children to school. It also helped factory workers and maids find jobs.
Anti-Defamation League formed so Jewish Americans could defend themselves against verbal attacks and untrue statements.
mutualistas groups that made loans and provided legal assistance for Mexican workers.
Theodore Roosevelt president that passed Progressive reforms and expanded the powers of the presidency.
Square Deal keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor.
Hepburn Act gave the government the authority to set and limit shipping costs. The act also set maximum prices for ferries, bridge tolls, and oil pipelines. Inforced the ICC act.
Meat Inspection Act provided federal agents to inspect any meat sold across state lines and required federal inspection of meat-processing plants.
Pure Food and Drug Act performs similar actions to the meat inspection act. Also banned the interstate shipment of impure food and the mislabeling of food and drugs.
John Muir found the Sierra Club to help people enjoy California's wild places and to lobby for protection of natural resources.
Gifford Pinchot led the Division of Forestry in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Recommended that forests be used for public use.
National Reclamation Act law that gave the federal government the power to decide where and how water would be distributed through the building and management of dams and irrigation projects
New Nationalism Roosevelt's plan to restore the government's trust-busting power
Progressive Party:Those who wanted a more active government
imperialism the policy by which strong nations extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker territories.
extractive economy economy in a colony where the colonizing country removed raw materials and shipped them back home to benefit its own economy
Alfred T. Mahan urged American leaders to build a stronger navy and to obtain naval bases in Cuba, Hawaii, and the Philippines. Came up with the idea that the United States should build a canal across Central America so its ships could move quickly between the Atlantic a
Social Darwinism the theory that life consists of competitive struggles in which only the fittest survive.
Matthew Perry set a precedent for further expansion across the Pacific Ocean. In 1867, the United States took possession of the Midway Islands. Treaties in 1875 and 1887 increased trade with the Hawaiian Islands and gave the United States the right to build a naval bas
Queen Liliuokalani Queen of Hawaii, overthrown by the Americans who pave the way for annexation. She abolished the constitution that had given political power to the white minority.
Jose Marti launched a war for independence from Spain. rebel fighters used guerrilla tactics of hit-and-run raids against Spanish forces.
William Randolph Hearst wrote articles that compared Cuban rebels to the patriots of the American Revolution. Along with Joseph Pulitzer, they heightened the public's dislike of the Spanish government.
Yellow Press featured a popular comic-strip character called The Yellow Kid that heightened the public's dislike of the Spanish government.
jingoism agressive nationalism. Inflamed national relations with Spain.
George Dewey led the defeat of the Spanish force in the Philippines.
Emilio Aguinaldo led Philippino nationalists to defeated the Spanish army while their ships were being taken down by thee American force.
Rough Riders group of men, consisting of rugged westerners and upper-class easterners who fought during the Spanish-American War
Treaty of Paris Signed by Spain and the United States in December 1898. officially ended the war. Spain gave up control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific island of Guam. It also sold the Philippines to the United States for $20 million.
insurrection Rebellion. For example, Amelio Aguinaldo organized an insurrection against the Americans who had taken over in the Philippines.
guerrilla warfare non-traditional combat methods.
William Howard Taft replaced the US military commander as governor general in 1901. Worked hard to rebuild the Philippino islands.
sphere of influence The range of influence that a power has.
John Hay U.S. secritary of state. establishes the Open Door Policy to protect American trading rights in China in 1899.
Boxer Rebellion because of the growing influence of outsiders in China, some Chinese joined secret societies which celebrated traditional Chinese customs and criticized Western ways and condemned Chinese converts to Christianity. One of these, the Righteous and Harmoniou
Open Door Policy American statement that the government did not want colonies in China, but favored free trade there
Russo-Japanese War war between Japan and Russia in 1904 over the presence of Russian troops in Manchuria. Was ended when representatives from Russia and Japan met in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, to negotiate an end. to When the talks stalled, President Theodore Roosevelt inte
"Gentlemen's Agreement" pact between the United States and Japan to end segregation of Asian children in San Francisco public schools; in return, Japan agreed to limit the immigration of its citizens to the United States.
Great White Fleet battleships sent by Roosevelt in 1907 on a "good will cruise". Demonstrated America's military to the rest of the country.
Foraker Act established a civil government in Puerto Rico. authorized the President of the United States to appoint a governor and part of the Puerto Rican legislature.
Piatt Amendment Restricted therights of newly independent Cubans. Prevented them from signing any treaties without the U.S's approval. Granted the US the right ot interveen to preserve order. required Cuba to lease naval stations to the United States.
"big stick" diplomacy titled this because it required a strong military to achieve America's goal. "Speak softly and cary a big stick; you will go far."
Panama Canal built so that boats could sail between the Atlantic and Pecific oceans. 1904-1913. Panama originally belonged to independent Columbia, who did not want to allow the US to build the Canal. Roosevelt sent ships to support a panamanian rebellion against Colu
Roosevelt Corollary In the case of "chronic wrongdoing" by a Latin American nation--the kind that Europeans might use to justify military intervention-- the United States would assume the role of police power, restoring order and depriving other creditors of the excuse to in
"dollar diplomacy William Taft's policy which he prefered to the "Bi Stick". aimed to increase American investments in businesses and banks throughout Central America and the Caribbean.
"moral diplomacy" pursued by democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson, who disapproved of the big stick policy and the dollar deplomacy, worked to promote human rights, justice, oppertuity and national integrity.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa - President Wilson sends U.S. troops on a "punitive expedition" into Mexico to hunt and capture the rebel.
Alsace-Lorraine The territory France lost to German states in a conflict during 1871. Clemenceau demanded its return along with reparations from Germany.
Militarism glorification of the military.
Francis Ferdinand heir to Austria-Hungary. Went with his wife Sophie to Sarajevo, the capital of Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia. Their assasination led to World War I.
William II German emperor. Assured Austria-Hungary that they would be allies if war came.
Western Front where 450 miles of trenches were dug between Belgium and Switzerland. The outcome of the battle here would determine who won the war.
contraband weapons and other articles that could be used to fight a war. They were allowed to legally be confiscated by international law.
U-boat German submarines. They used torpidos and on-deck guns to sink ships.
Lusitania sank a british passenger liner off the coast of Ireland on May seventh, 1915. Killed 128 Americans and an aditional 1000 passengers.
Zimmermann note A telegram sent to New Mexico that proposed an alliance with Mexico. If the US declared war with Germany, then Mexico should declare war on the US and get their land back (Texas, New Mexico, and arizona which had been taken during the Mexican-American war
Selective Service Act President Wilson authorized a draft of young men for military service in Europe.
Bernard Baruch an influencial wall street investment broker who reported directly to the president. Headed the War industries Board. Regulated all industries engaged in the war effort.
CPI Community on public information. Was responsible for educating the public on the causes and nature of the war. Their goal was to convince the Americans that the war was a just cause. Stressed the cruelty and wickedness of Germany which caused resentment t
George Creel director of the CPI Combined education and an advertising campaign to "sell America."
conscientious objector people who's moral beliefs prevented them from fighting in the war.
Espionage Act allowed the postal authorities to confiscate treasonable or seditious newspapers, magazines, or printed materials from the mail.
Great Migration Several push factors (Jim Crow segregation laws, Lynchings and other racial violence, low-paying jobs as sharecroppers or servants, ruined cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation), caused thousands of African Americans to move from the south to the No
convoy Groups of merchant ships sailed together, protected by warships. This method was used for mutual safety while at sea. Provoked when the German U-boats kept sinking merchant ships, causing a loss of crucial resources.
Vladimir Lenin Led radical communists who staged a revolution and got controll of Russia.
John J. Pershing guided the creation of the American Expeditionary Force. He faced the difficult task of turning millions of untrained men into an effective fighting force. He then led this force in France.
Fourteen Points America's war aims. Wilson proposed a peace inspired by noble ideals instead of greed and vengeance.
self-determination the right of people to choose their own government. Led to the creation of new, independent states.
League of Nations world organization established after World War I to promote peaceful cooperation between countries
Henry Cabot Lodge Republican foreign policy expert. Led a group called the reservationists.
Reparations Payment for war damages. Those at the peace conference wanted to force Germany to pay for war damages; to weaken them so they could not threaten Europe again.
"irreconcilables" A group of senators who felt that the US should not get involved in any world politics or world organizations. O pposed any treaty that had a League of Nations folded into it.
"reservationists" A group of senators who opposed the Treaty of Versailles unless specific changes were included. They felt that language of article 10 was too vague and demanded that it not contradict the power of Congress to declare war. After some changes they were prep
influenza in 1918, a pandemic struck frs the US, then the rest of the world. Most of the virus' victims in the United States died between mid-September and early December 1918.
inflation the rising of prices of goods and resources. In America, it was caused by people rushing to buy consumer goods rather than war bonds.
Red Scare widespread fear that suspected communists and radicals were plotting revolution within the United States.
Palmer Raids A broad offensive led by A. Mitchell Palmer against radicals. Police arrested thousands of people, some who were radicals and some who were simply immigrants from southern or Eastern Europe.
Nicola Sacco An Italian imigrant who was an Anarchist. He, along with Bartolomeo Vanzetti were charged with shooting and killing two men during a holdup at a shoe factory in a town near boston. Their trial was swift and persecuted them, although there was little evide
Warren G. Harding Elected president in 1920. favored more conservative policies that aided the growth of business rather than reform policies. Managed to reduced spending from a wartime high of $18 billion to $3 billion.
creditor nation The US was the largest creditor nation in the world, meaning that other countries owed the United States more money than the United States owed them.
Henry Ford Sparked mass production with his production of automobiles using the assembly line. Revolutionized production, wages, working conditions, and daily life.
mass production production of goods in large numbers through the use of machinery and assembly lines
Model T the first reliable car automobile that the average American could afford, invented by Henry Ford. Sold at a starting price of $850.
scientific management
assembly line the process in which a worker adds a part or performs a single action with the product being made.
consumer revolution when a flood of new, affordable goods become available to the public
installment buying method of purchase in which buyer makes a small down payment and then pays off the rest of the debt in regular monthly payments
bull market a period of rising stock prices. In the 1920s, more and more Americans put money into stocks in an effort to become rich.
buying on margin another form of buying on credit. By purchasing stock on margin, a buyer paid as little as 10 percent of the stock price upfront to a broker. The buyer then paid the broker for the rest of the stock over a period of months.
Andrew Mellon Secritary of the treasury under Warren G. Harding. supported legislation that advanced business interests. Disliked the new form ofincome tax, favoring low taxes on individuals and corporations. reduced spending from a wartime high of $18 billion to $3 b
Herbert Hoover Harding's Secretary of Commerce. enjoyed great successes at getting people to work together instead of battling one another. When he became president, refused to give money to those in need individually because he believed it was unconstitutional and thou
Teapot Dome scandal during the Harding administration, the Secretary of the Interior leased government oil reserves to private oilmen in return for bribes.
Calvin Coolidge President Harding's successer. Favored more conservative policies that aided the growth of business. Believed that the creation of wealth benefited the nation as a whole.
Washington Naval Disarmament Conference A group of diplomats in Washington, D.C. to stop another naval arms race before it got out of control. World leaders agreed to limit construction of large warships and settled several problems between Japan and the West.
Kellogg-Briand Pact agreement in which many nations agreed to outlaw war. Proposed by Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand. 62 nations ratified the pact. It was promptly forgotten.
Dawes Plan The US payed lones to Germany. By enabling Germany to make reparation payments to Britain and France, it helped Britain and France to repay their debts to the United States.
modernism The growing trend to emphasize science and secular values over traditional ideas about religion.
fundamentalism movement or attitude stressing strict and literal adherence to a set of basic principles Fundamentalists believed that the answer to every important moral and scientific question was in their holy book. Their ideas took root all over the country but were
Scopes Trial trial of a Tennessee schoolteacher for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution
Clarence Darrow most celebrated defense attorney in America. He traveled from his home in Chicago to defend Scopes.
quota system arrangement that limited the number of immigrants who could enter the United States from specific countries
Ku Klux Klan targeted Jews, Catholics, and immigrants. The Klan also claimed to stand against lawbreaking and immorality. One of Had 4-5 million members at the most.
Prohibition The ban of selling or producing alchol.
Eighteenth Amendment forbade the manufacture, distribution, and sale of alcohol anywhere in the United States.
Volstead Act the law that officially enforced the 18th amendment.
bootlegger sold illegal alcohol to consumers.
The Jazz Singer the first movie to have sound synchronized with action.
Charles Lindbergh the first pilot to fly across the Atlantic ocean solo and non-stop.
flapper Women in the 1920s who wore dresses with shorter hemlines, put on more makeup, danced to the latest crazes, and generally assumed that she had the same political and social rights as any man.
Sigmund Freud psychologist who argued that much of human behavior is driven not by rational thought but by unconscious desires. led writers and artists to explore the subconscious mind.
"Lost Generation" American writers from the 1920s. No longer had faith in the cultural guideposts of the Victorian era. Included F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Edith Wharton, Sinclair Lewis, William Faulkner, Gertrude Stein, Eugene O'Neill, and T. S. Eliot.
F. Scott Fitzgerald Author of "The great Gatsby". explored the reality of the American dream of wealth, success, and emotional fulfillment in his writings.
Marcus Garvey Born in Jamaica, he was the most prominent new African American leader to emerge in the 1920s. He promoted the idea of universal black nationalism and organized a "Back to Africa" movement, but he advocated the separation of the races instead of the idea
jazz a form of music that recombines different forms of music, including African American blues and ragtime, and European-based popular music. Played a large part duin the Prohibition area; it was played in speakeasies and nightspots in New York, Chicago, St.
Louis Armstrong unofficial ambassador of jazz. Pioneered "scat," a style in which the singer improvises meaningless syllables that mimic the sounds of musical instruments.
Bessie Smith the highest-paid African American entertainer of the 1920s.
Harlem Renaissance The growth of African American culture in the US. Novelists, poets, and artists celebrated their culture and explored questions of race. It altered the way many white Americans viewed African American culture, and even the way African Americans viewed the
Claude McKay showed ordinary African Americans struggling for dignity and advancement in the face of discrimination and economic hardships in his poetry and other writings.
Langston Hughes the most powerful African American literary voice in his time. captured the remarkable diversity of everyday African American life.
Zora Neale Hurston Collected folk tales in books such as Mules and Men. Her 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God expressed the new longing for independence felt by many women, black and white.
speculation the practice of making high-risk investments in hopes of obtaining large profits
Black Tuesday October 29,1929, when stock prices fell sharply in the Great Crash. More than 16 million shares were sold as the stock market collapsed in the Great Crash. Billions of dollars were lost and whole fortunes were wiped out in hours.
business cycle explains the periodic growth and contraction of the economy.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff was intended to protect American products from foreign competition. The result was that international trade was destroyed. This tariff was one thing that caused the depression. European countries were forced to enact protective tariffs of their own for th
bread line long lines where people would wait for hours at soup kitchens for food.
Hooverville makeshift towns of tents and shacks built on public land or vacant lots. One of the largest hoovervilles was in the middle of Central Park in New York City. There, the homeless covered themselves with newspapers, called Hoover blankets, to stay warm at ni
Dust Bowl An area highly effected by drout, causing the ground to become dry and gritty. A single dust storm could carry more than 300 million tons of dust, and constant storms in the "dirty thirties" destroyed as many as 5 million acres of wheat.
Okies Dust Bowl refugees
repatriation efforts by local, state, and federal governments to encourage or coerce Mexican immigrants and their naturalized children to return to Mexico.
localism the policy where problems could be solved at local and state levels. Hoover strongly resisted using federal resources to provide direct relief to individuals. He asked state and local governments to provide more jobs and relief measures.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation federal agency set up by Congress in 1932 to provide emergency government credit to banks, railroads, and other large businesses
trickle-down economics the theory that if the government lent money to bankers, they would lend it in turn to businessmen. Businessmen would then hire workers, production and consumption would increase, and the depression would end.
Hoover Dam dam on the Colorado River that was built during the Great Depression. Its construction provided much needed jobs to people during the 1930s.
Bonus Army World War I veterans seeking the bonus Congress had promised them. many veteran groups began to call for an early payment of the bonus, arguing that out-of-work vets needed the money. Congress agreed and passed a bill to provide for early payment of the b
Douglas MacArthur brought in troops to drive the protesters of the bonus army out of the city.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Democratic president. Implimented the New Deal, and later, the Second New Deal.
Eleanor Roosevelt Distant cousin of Roosevelt and his wife. Functioned as his ears around the nation as she traveled a lot without him.
New Deal Fifteen bills passed by Roosevelt that tried to provide relief, recovery, and reform. He wanted to provide relief from the immediate hardships of the depression and achieve a long-term economic recovery. He also instituted reforms to prevent future depres
fireside chat radio broadcast in which FDR explained issues and New Deal programs to average Americans.
FDIC Program that will insure that people will receive all their money back from the government if their bank happens to close down or runs out of money.
TVA built dams in the Tennessee river to prevent floods and generate electricity. They also rebuilt forests and built fertilizer plants, creating many more jobs for people in the process.
CCC provided young men with relief jobs on environmental conservation projects, including reforestation and flood control
NRA promoted economic recovery by regulating production, prices, and wages
PWA built dams, government buildings, power plants, and bridges. These services are still in use today. It also created millions of new jobs for those in desperate need of one.
Charles Coughlin a Roman Catholic priest who had attracted millions of listeners to his weekly radio show. At first, Coughlin supported the New Deal, but in time he broke with FDR, accusing him of not doing enough to fight the depression. Called the new deal the "raw deal
Huey Long had a solution to the depression
Second New Deal legislative activity begun by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935 to solve problems created by the Great Depression. ddressed the problems of the elderly, the poor, and the unemployed; created new public-works projects; helped farmers; and enacted measures to p
WPA had employed more than 8 million people and spent about $11 billion by 1943. workers built more than 650,000 miles of highways and 125,000 public buildings.
John Maynard Keynes Proposed that deficit spending of the government’s money was the way to end the depression. He believed that by giving jobs to people to work on public projects, money would circulate into consumer's hands and they would be able to increase demands of pro
pump priming The theory that putting people to work on public projects would put money into the hands of consumers who would buy more goods, stimulating the economy.
Social Security Act law that set up a pension system for retirees, established unemployment insurance, and created insurance for victims of work-related accidents.
Wagner Act New Deal law that abolished unfair labor practices, recognized the right of employees to organize labor unions, and gave workers the right to collective bargaining
collective bargaining process in which employers negotiate with labor unions about hours, wages, and other working conditions
Fair Labor Standards Act provided workers with rights such as a minimum wage which was 25 cents initially, and a maximum work week of 44 hours. It also banned child labor.
sit-down strikes when workers refused to leave the workplace until a settlement was reached. This led to about 9 million workers belonging to unions in 1940 and and gaining better working conditions and wages.
court packing FDR plan to add up to six new justices to the nine-member Supreme Court after the Court had ruled that some New Deal legislation was unconstitutional
Black Cabinet President invited many African American leaders to advise him. Included Robert Weaver and William Hastie.
Mary McLeod Bethune member of the black cabinet. The founder of Bethune Cookman College. Was a powerful champion of racial equality.
Indian New Deal a program that gave Indians economic assistance and greater control over their own affairs. Established by John Collier who felt that Dawes Act was resulting in "total landlessness for the Indians."
New Deal coalition brought together southern whites, northern blue-collar workers--especially those with immigrant roots--poor midwestern farmers, and African Americans. Gave the Democratic Party a sizable majority in both houses of Congress.
welfare state a government that assumes responsibility for providing for the welfare of children and the poor, elderly, sick, disabled, and unemployed.
Frank Capra director of films that focused on the strength of average Americans. They celebrate American idealism and the triumph of the common man over the forces of adversity.
War of the Worlds A radio drama which caused mass panic when people thought that aliens were actually invading.
Federal Art Project division of the Works Progress Administration that hired unemployed artists to create artworks for public buildings and sponsored art-education programs and exhibitions.
Dorothea Lange photographer who created powerful images of impoverished farmers and migrant workers. E.G. her photo Migrant Mother
Lillian Hellman wrote several plays featuring strong roles for women. Hellman's plays The Children's Hour, The Little Foxes, and Watch on the Rhine are also notable for their socially conscious subject matter.
totalitarianism a theory of government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people.
Joseph Stalin totalitarian leader of the Soviet Union
Benito Mussolini totalitarian leader of Italy
Adolf Hitler Who was the totalitarian leader of Germany.
anti-Semitic prejudiced against Jewish people. Fueled for centuries by religious intolerance and economic resentment. Additionally, new pseudo-scientific theories about Jews as a race, along with the rise of nationalism, caused Jews to be marginalized as ethnic outsid
Spanish Civil War from 1936 until 1939, The Nationalists, who had fascist tendencies, rebelled against Spain's democratic Republican government. Hitler and Mussolini sent aid to the nationalist leader, General Francisco Franco. France, Britain, and the United States remain
appeasement the act of giving an enemy what they want, with the hope that they will remain peaceful. France and England appeased Germany because Both countries remembered WWI and didn’t want to go through all the devastation again. They also thought Russia was a grea
Anschluss the forced union between Austria and Hitler's Reich.
Munich Pact agreement made between Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France in 1938 that sacrificed the Sudetenland to preserve peace
blitzkrieg:A sudden attack using "lightning war" that emphasized the use of speed and firepower to penetrate deep into the enemy's territory. Hitler used this tactic against
Axis Powers group of countries led by Germany, Italy, and Japan that fought the Allies in World War II
Allies group of countries led by Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union that fought the Axis Powers in World War II
Winston Churchill Prime minister of Britain. had no intention of continuing the policy of appeasement.
Neutrality Act of 1939 act that allowed nations at war to buy goods and arms in the United States if they paid cash and carried the merchandise on their own ships Benefited the allies.
Tripartite Pact agreement that created an alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II
Lend-Lease Act act passed in 1941 that allowed President Roosevelt to sell or lend war supplies to any country whose defense he considered vital to the safety of the United States
Atlantic Charter written by the United States and England. Endorsed national self-determination and an international system of general security
Hideki Tojo Japanese prime minister. focused intently on military expansion but sought to keep the United States neutral. Japan was bent on further expansion, and the United States was firmly against it. Finally, Tojo decided to strike the US in the beginning of Dece
WAC Women's army kore. established during World War II so that women could serve in non-combat roles. Established by Edith Nourse Rogers.
Bataan Death March during World War II, the forced march of American and Filipino prisoners of war under brutal conditions by the Japanese military. Condemned for committing atrocities in China, Korea, and Southeast Asia. Were forced to march 55 miles up the Bataan Peninsul
Battle of Coral Sea battle that took place between Japanese and American aircraft carriers. Technical victory for the United States because it forced the Japanese to call off their attack on New Guinea.
Dwight Eisenhower commanded the allied invasion of North Africa. put American forces in North Africa under the command of George S. Patton.
unconditional surrender giving up completely without any concessions. FDR announced that the Allies would accept only unconditional surrender. Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo could not hope to stay in power through a negotiated peace.
saturation bombing Excessive British bombing of German cities. The goal was to inflict maximum damage.
strategic bombing tactic of dropping bombs on key political and industrial targets
Tuskegee Airmen An African American fighter squadron who escorted bombers and protected them from enemy fighter pilots. In more than 1,500 missions over enemy territory in Europe, the Tuskegee Airmen did not lose a single bomber.
Chester Nimitz commander of US navy in the Pacific. sent his only available aircraft carriers to Midway to intercept the expected assault at Midway, an American naval base in the Central Pacific that was vital to the defense of Hawaii
Battle of Midway turning point of World War II in the Pacific, in which the Japanese advance was stopped
A. Philip Randolph asserted that African Americans would no longer accept second-class citizenship. Randolph presented President Roosevelt a list of demands, including the end of discriminatory practices in government-funded training, employment, and the armed services.
Executive Order 8802 assured fair hiring practices in any job funded with government money and established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to enforce these requirements.
bracero program brought Mexicans to the US to work on US farms to to alleviate the rural population drain.
internment temporary imprisonment of members of a specific group. E.G. Japanese Americans lived in bleak barracks, subject to heat and dust storms.
442 nd Regimental Combat Team World War II unit made up of Japanese American volunteers. After the ban was lifted, the Japanese eagerly enlisted in the armed forces. helped counter the notion that Japanese Americans were not loyal citizens.
OWI government agency that encouraged support of the war effort during World War II.
Battle of the Bulge in December 1944, Hitler ordered a counterattack on Allied troops in Belgium, but it crippled Germany by using up reserves and demoralizing its troops
Harry S. Truman President after Roosevelt. Oversaw the end of the war. Made the decision to use the atomic bomb on Japan.
island hopping World War II strategy that involved seizing selected Japanese-held islands in the Pacific while bypassing others.
kamikaze Japanese pilots who deliberately crashed planes into American ships during World War II
Manhattan Project code name of the project that developed the atomic bomb. Cost several billion dollars and gave jobs to tens of thousands of people. Led by General Leslie Groves and physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer.
Holocaust name now used to describe the systematic murder by the Nazis of Jews and others
Nuremberg Laws laws enacted by Hitler that denied German citizenship to Jews
Kristallnacht Translated to "Night of the Broken Glass," organized attacks on Jewish communities in Germany on November 9, 1938
genocide the systematic killing of one race.
War Refugee Board U.S. government agency founded in 1944 to save Eastern European Jews.
Yalta Conference strategy meeting between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin. Agreed that Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania would hold free elections.
superpower powerful country that plays a dominant economic, political, and military role in the world. In this case, the US and the USSR.
GATT a 1948 treaty designed to expand world trade by reducing tariffs.
United Nations organization founded in 1945 to promote peace. organized on the basis of cooperation between the Great Powers, not on the absolute equality of all nations.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights document issued by the UN to promote basic human rights and freedoms. Its creation was guided by Eleanor Roosevelt.
Geneva Connection international agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war.
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