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Nissing AP Ch2

A&P Ch2 Chemical Level of Organization (FUNCTIONAL GROUPS)

What to do if you find an error in these slides Email Totallyjen@gmail.com, tell me which stack you're working on (A&P ch2) and let me know what I messed up, I'll fix it!
What are the 3 states of matter? Solid, Liquid, Gas
This is matter composed of identical atoms Element
Can an element be decomposed by normal chemical reactions? No
How many known elements are there? 118
How many known types of atoms are there? 118
How many naturally occuring elements are there? 92
Which elements are manmade? 93-118
What is an atomic symbol? One or two letters that stand for an element
When using atomic weight or mass in this bio class, what do we round to? The nearest WHOLE number
What does the atomic number represent The number of protons in the nucleus (which is generally the number of electrons as well)
What is found in the nucleus of an atom? Protons and neutrons
Normally, the number of protons is equal to the number of... Electrons
How do you find the number of neutrons for a specific element from a table of elements? Atomic weight/mass minus atomic number/protons
How do you know how many levels or electron shells an element has? Whichever horizontal row it's on (ie, 3rd row down = 3 levels)
What is different among isotopes of the same element? The number of neutrons is different, and consequently so is the atomic mass. Protons (and therefore atomic number) and electrons remain the same
The superscript number of an isotope refers to what? The mass of this isotope of the element
How do you find the number of protons in an element given the periodic table? It's the atomic number
What does the atomic mass represent? The mass of the protons and neutrons and electrons (the latter being miniscule overall)
The lewis dot model shows the symbol of the element as well as dots representing... the number of electrons on the last energy level
The Bohr Model shows what two numbers in the center? # of Protons and # of Neutrons
Unstable isotopes that give off energy as they decay Radioactive isotopes
Type of atomic bonding where electrons are transferred Ionic
Oxidation is when, in an ionic bond, one or more electrons is transfered _______ a metal FROM a metal
Reduction is when, in an ionic bond, one or more electrons is transferred ______ a non-metal TO a non metal
In oxidation, the charge of the metal is Positive
In the nonmetal that is reduced, the charge is Negative
An ion that has a positive charge is called... Cation
An ion that has a negative charge is called... Anion
In an ionic bond, what is the charge of the metalic ions? Positive Cation
In an ionic bond, what is the charge of the nonmetal? Negative Anion
What are the two tissues in the body with transmembrane potential? Muscular and nervous (they have the potential energy stored across their membranes for action)
Ionic bonds typically are formed between a _____ and a ______. Metal and nonmetal
Sharing of one or more electrons between two or more atoms Covalent Bonding
F-F is the _________ formula indicating that there is a single covalent bond between two Fluoride molecules Structural
F2 is the _________ formula indicating that a molecule is made up of 2 Fluoride molecules Molecular
What are the 4 major elements that create organic molecules? CHON: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Any substance that releases hydrogen ions (or, essentially protons), meaning when disassociated in water, a product is H(^+1) Acid
Any substance that releases hydroxyl ions (OH-1), meaning when disassociated a product is OH(^-1) Base
What is the pH? H concentration = 10(^-4) pH = 4
What is the pH? OH concentration = 10(^-10) pH = 14-10 = 4
What is the pH? OH concentration = 10(^-12) pH = 14-12 = 2
What is the function of proteins? A specific shape performs a specific function, including enzymes (catalyze), transport molecules, cell receptors, hormones, antibodies
What elements are in proteins? Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur
What functional groups will you see on a protein? A carbon will attach to an amino group (NH2), a carboxylic group (COOH) a hydrogen (H), and a side group (R)
What type of bonding occurs between amino acids? Peptide bonding: Dehydration synthesis between the carboxylic acid on one and the amino group on another
What are the monomers and polymers of amino acids? amino acid, dipeptide, polypeptides, proteins, glycoproteins, lipoproteins...
Altering secondary and tertiary structure by the destruction of hydrogen bonds by heat, pH, or salt concentrations Denaturation
What is the function of nucleic acids? Heredity and protein synthesis
What elements are in nucleic acids? C H O N P
What functional groups will you see in a nucleic acid Phosphate and alcohols (hydroxyl)
What are the monomers and polymers of nucleic acid? Nucleotide, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid
What kind of bonding occurs between nucleic acids? Phosphodiester bond: through dehydration synthesis, the phosphate bonds on both sides with the alcohols
How many hydrogen bonds are there between Cytosine and Guanine? 3
What are the pyrimidines? Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil
What are the purines? Adenine, Guanine
What word describes the structure of DNA strands indicating that one runs from 5' to 3' and the other the opposite way? antiparallel
What makes up the "spine" of a DNA strand? Sugar and phosphate
what unwinds the DNA helicase
What holds DNA strands together hydrogen bonds of complimentary pairs
In replication of DNA, which DNA strand is the "leading strand template"? The one that runs from 3' to 5'
What is the leading strand? The new strand formed from the leading strand template, and runs from 5' to 3'
In replication of DNA, which strand is the "lagging strand template"? The one that runs from 5' to 3' and makes the okizaki fragments, which become the lagging strand
Number of protons in an atom is that element's atomic number
Electrons travel around the nucleus at high speed, within a spherical area called the... electron cloud
In 2-D illustrations of atomic structure, electrons are drawn in concentric circles called... electron shells
Name for the attraction between opposite electrical charges electrical force
Why aren't the masses of electrons included in the atomic mass of an element? Because electrons are so much lighter than protons and neutrons that their weight is comparably insignificant (1/1836th the mass)
Word meaning pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind element
The breakdown process of radioisotopes in which an isotope emits subatomic particles or radiation in measurable amounts radioactive decay
The decay rate of radioisotopes are commonly expressed by a value that indicates the time required for half of a given amount of an isotope to decay. Half life
The unit used to express atomic weight of an element atomic mass unit (amu)
Because isotopes of elements have different atomic weights, how is the atomic weight determined? The atomic weight reflects proportions of different isotopes, and usually is closest to that of the most common isotope
Quantity with a weight in grams equal to that of the element's atomic weight mole
A mole of any element always contains the same number of atoms as another element. What is the number called? Avogadro's number, 6.023 x 10(^23), or about 600 billion trillion
What does it mean to say that atoms are electrically neutral? every positively charged proton is balanced by a negatively charged electron
The outermost energy level of an atom that forms it's "surface" valence shell
Atoms with a filled outermost energy level do not readily react with other atoms. These elements are called... stable, inert, noble
Atoms with unfilled outermost energy level readily react with other atoms. These elements are called... reactive
How do reactive atoms achieve stability? By gaining, losing or sharing electrons to fill their outermost energy level
Interactions which hold participating atoms together after a reaction Chemical bond
What is the difference between a molecule and a compound? A molecule is atoms held together by covalent bonds. A compound is a pure chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements regardless of the bond.
A molecule that is not a compound would be ... Made up of only one element
A compound not made up of molecules would be ... held together by bonds other than covalent
2H+O -> H2O This is an example of what shorthand? Chemical notation
Bonding between atoms or molecules that carry an electrical charge ionic bond
positively charged ion cation,
negatively charged ion anion
What is the charge of an ion that has given up two electrons? (the donor) +2
What is the charge of an ion that has gained an electron? (the acceptor) -1 (because the electron is negatively charged)
Once a donor ion has given up the electron(s) in its valence shell, it is "happy" - why? Because now its outermost shell is full it is staqble, and it is close (ionicly bonded) to an ion that it's attracted to (the anion)
What is a combination of oppositely charged ions called? Ionic compound (remember that for a substance to be a compound it only has to be composed of different elements)
Type of bond where electrons are shared between two atoms covalent
An ion or molecule that contains unpaired electrons in its outermost energy level is called a... free radical
Covalent bonding in which electrons are shared equally, and are very common. Nonpolar covalent bonds
Polar covalent bonds create molecules with positive and negative ends, called... Polar molecules
Name for the attraction between the transient positive charge on one part of a molecule and the transient negative charge on part of the same or a different molecule Hydrogen bonds
Name for the barrier-like quality of water created by hydrogen bonding surface tension
A substance that maintains its volume but do not have a fixed shape liquid
The sum of the atomic weights of the component atoms of a molecule is called... molecular weight
Term encompassing the formation of new chemical bonds and the breaking of existing bonds Chemical reaction
The name for any substance(s) present before a chemical reaction reactant
Name for any substance(s) present after a chemical reaction is complete products
All of the reactions under way int he cells and tissues of the body at any given moment constitute its... metabolism
The movement of an object or a change in the physical structure of matter work
the capacity to perform work; movement or physical change requires this energy
Energy that can be transferred to another object and perform work Kinetic energy
energy that has the potential to do work and is stored Potential energy
Each time an energy exchange occurs, some of the energy is released in the form of... heat
Term defined as an increase in random molecular motion Heat
A reaction that breaks a molecule into smaller fragments AB -> A+B Decomposition reaction
Decomposition reaction in which a bond of the complex molecule is broken, and the components of water (H and OH) are aded hydrolysis
Term meaning breaking covalent of bonds, as in decomposition reactions, within the cells and tissues of the body catabolism
A reaction that assembles smaller molecules into larger molecules A+B -> AB Synthesis
Synthesis reaction in which H and OH are removed from reactants and water is one of the products AH+BHO -> AB + H2O Dehydration synthesis or condensation reaction
Term meaning creating covalent bonds and synthesizing new molecules within the cells and tissues of the body Anabolism
Reaction where there are the same number of reactants and products with the same components, but in different combinations AB+CD -> AC+BD
Many biological reactions are freely reversible. When the two reactions proceed at a balanced rate, this is called... equilibrium
The amount of energy required to start a reaction is called the... activation energy
Special proteins that promote chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy requirements Enzymes
Enzymes belong to a class of compounds that accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently changed called... catalysts
The complex reactions that support life proceed in a series of interlocking steps controlled by specific enzymes. The sequence is called... Metabolic pathway
A metabolic pathway that has a net release of energy is called... exergonic
A metabolic pathway that has a net absorption of energy, it is called... endergonic
Which type of reaction is responsible for maintaining body temperature? exergonic (energy/heat releasing)
Metabolites that are essential elements and molecules normally obtained form the diet nutrients
All molecules that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside our bodies Metabolites
Compounds that generally do not contain carbon and hydrogen inorganic compounds
two elements present in all organic compounds hydrogen and carbon
Give 2 important inorganic compounds in the body CO2, O2, H2O, salts, acids, and bases
Water disolves a large amount of organic and inorganic molecules. The result of these solutes dispersed in water (the universal solvent), is... a solution
Hydration synthesis and hydrolysis are two examples of how important water is in our bodies as a means of... reactivity and chemical reaction
Water has a high ability to absorb and retain heat. This is known as its... heat capacity
The slow process of changing the temp of 1g of water by 1-C is a property of water called... thermal inertia
Water's ability to decrease friction between opposing forces, such as in the joint of a knee, is known as... lubrication
In water, many inorganic compounds held together by ionic bonds undergo ... dissociation or ionization
What a dissolved cation (+) is surrounded by the H polar end of water (-), or a dissolved anion(-) is surrounded by the O polar end of water (+), this forms... hydration spheres
Soluble inorganic molecules whose ions conduct electrical current electrolytes
Where are the 3 places in the body that ion concentrations are regulated most? Kidneys (excretion) Digestive (absorption) Skeleton (store/release)
The term that describes the love for water that is formed by molecules with polar bonds hydrophilic
The term that describes the inability to dissolve by molecules with nonpolar covalent bonds hydrophobic
A mixture containing dispersed large molecules that are in solution (like proteins) colloid
A mixture containing dispersed large particles that will settle out of solution (like blood cells) Suspension
The dissociation of a water molecule results in... a hydrogen ion and a hydroxide ion (H+ and OH-)
What does [H+] mean? The concentration of hydrogen ions
Given the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution (mol/L), what is the pH? The negative logarithm. For example, the concentration of H in water is 1 x 10(^-7)mol/L. So the pH is positive 7
The pH scale runs from... 0 to 14, 7 is neutral
pH of blood 7.35 to 7.45
any solute that dissociates in solution and releases hydrogen ions, thereby lowering pH. Proton donors. Acid
any solute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution, thereby increasing pH. Proton acceptors. Base
ionic compound containing any cation EXCEPT a hydrogen ion, and any anion EXCEPT a hydroxide ion Salt
Compounds that stabilize the pH of a solution by removing or replacing H+ ions Buffers
These systems usually involve a weak acid (like Carbonic acid) and it's related salt (like sodium bicarbonate), which functions as a weak base buffer system
Organic molecule containing Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of near 1:2:1 Carbohydrate
the monomer for carbohydrate monosaccharide (sucrose, glucose)
The polymer for carbohydrate disaccharide (sucrose), polysaccharide (glycogen, cellulose, plant starch)
What is the primary function of carbohydrates? Energy
What functional groups are common to carbohydrates? Hydroxyl(-OH), Aldehyde(H-C=O), Ketone(C=O)
What type of bonding occurs between carbohydrates? Glycoside bond occurs between an alcohol (-OH) on one and another alcohol (-OH) on the other
What is the most important metabolic fuel in the body? Glucose
molecules with the same formula but with different structures isomers
What is the name of the polysaccharide that is known as "animal starch" glycogen
Where is glycogen made and stored? muscle cells
Which macromolecule has carbon and hydrogen in a ratio near 1:2 Lipids
Besides Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen, what other molecules are in lipids? Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Sulfur
What is the main function of lipids? Stored energy and protection
What functional groups are commonly found in lipids? Carboxyl (-COOH, P=C-OH) and alcohol (-OH)
What type of bonding is in lipids? ester bonding between the carboxyl of one fatty acid and an alcohol on the glycerol
What are the monomers for lipids? Fatty acids and Glycerol
What are the polymers for lipids? Triglycerides, Phospholipids, steroids
What is the name of the part that makes up the "tail" of fatty acids? hydrocarbon chain
When in solution, which end of a fatty acid associates with water molecules? The carboxyl (which is the end that can bind with the glycerol)
How many double bonds are in a monounsaturated fatty acid? one
How many double bonds are in a polyunsaturated acid? Two or more
Lipids derived from arachidonic acid are called... Eicosanoids
Where does the body get arachidonic acids? From diet because they cannot be synthesized in the body
One eicosaniod that is produced mostly by cells involved with coordinating the response to injury or disease is called Leukotrienes (Leuko means white, as in leukocytes, white blood cells, our immune response cells)
Eicosanoid synthesized in nearly all tissues that are short-chain fatty acids in which the five carbon atoms form a ring Prostaglandins
Often called local hormones, these fatty acids are a type of messenger that affect only the area in which they are produced. Prostaglandins
Which type of macromolecule cannot be strung together in a chain by dehydration synthesis? Lipids. They require glycerol
a modified simple sugar to which fatty acids attach to form polymers Glycerol, after reaction Glyceride
What is monoglyceride? A modified simple sugar, glycerol, and a fatty acid
What is a polymer of fatty acids called? diglyceride (glycerol + 2 fatty acids) and triglyceride (glycerol + 3 fatty acids)
What are two other names for triglycerides? Triacylglycerols or neutral fats
What are the three important functions of triglycerides? Energy source, insulation, protection (as in kidneys)
What roles do steroids play in the human body? Choleterol in plasma membranes, sexual regulation (estrogen testosterone), adrenal hormones (corticosteroids and calcitriol), bile salts of liver
A polymer linking a diglyceride to a nonlipid group phosphate group phospholipid
A carbohydrate attached to a diglyceride glycolipid
The nonlipid heads of glycolipids are... hydrophilic
A droplet with hydrophilic portions on the outside micelle
Cholesterol, phospholipids, and glycolipids help form and maintain intracellular structures called membranes, and are therefore called... structural lipids
Chains of amino acids are called proteins
What is the most abundant organic component of the human body, and in many ways the most important? Protein
Name a few essential functions of proteins Support, movement (contractile proteins), transport, buffering, metabolic regulation, coordination and control, defense
Proteins consist of a long chain of organic molecules called amino acids
A typical protein contains how many amino acids? 1000, large complex proteins have 100,000 or more
Amino acids consist of these components Central carbon, hydrogen, amino group, carboxyl group, R group
Tripeptides and larger molecules are called... polypeptides
Because most proteins contain a side group that is negatively charged, the entire protein acts as an anion and is abbreviated... Pr-
These proteins form extended sheets or stands that are usually the product of secondary structure, they are tough, durable, and generally insoluble playing structural roles Fibrous proteins
These proteins must remain in aqueous solution to function, are compact, rounded. It has a rounded tertiary structure and makes up myoglobin, enzymes, hormones, and other proteins Globular proteins
What determines the function of a protein? the shape, which is determined by the sequence of amino acids and can be altered by altering ionic composition, pH, proximity to other molecules in solution, or temperature
What is the term given to reactants in an enzymatic reaction? Substrate
The location to which a substrate binds to an enzyme is called the... active site, a groove or pocket into which the substrate fits like a key
Are substrates organic or inorganic both or either
basic characteristic of enzymes that refers to the ability of active sites to bind to only substrates with particular shapes and charges Specificity
Different tissues typically contain enzymes that differ slightly in structure buy catalyze the same reaction. These enzymes are called... Isozymes
Basic characteristic of enzymes that refers to the substrate concentration required to have the maximum rate of reaction Saturation limit
Basic characteristic of enzymes that refers to the ability of outside forces to turn an enzyme "on" or "off" by changing the tertiary or quaternary shape of the enzyme Regulation
An ion or molecule that must bind to the enzyme before substrates can bind to it, an example of enzyme regulation Cofactor
Cofactor ions such as calcium and magnesium bind to an enzyme in such a way that they... change the shape of the the active site
Nonprotein organic molecules that function as cofactors and generally come from vitamins Coenzymes
Term meaning change in shape causing deterioration of function by alteration of pH or increase in temperature Denaturation
Combination of protein and carbohydrate that has larger protein and therefore has a more protein-like role and secrets mucin glycoPROTEIN
Large polysaccharide molecules linked by polypeptide chains that give tissue fluids a viscous consistency proteoGLYCANS
Large organic molecules composed of C H O N P Nucleic acid
Two classes of nucleic acids DNA and RNA
List the parts of a nucleotide A pentose sugar, attached to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
Purines Adenine Guanine
Pyrimidines Cytosine Thymine Uracil
What makes up the backbone of nucleic acid molecules? Alternating sugar and phosphate
Process of obtaining energy by breaking down organic substrates catabolism
ATP and other molecules formed by binding phosphate groups to organic molecules are... high-energy compounds
What enzyme is responsible for converting ATP to ADP, releasing energy? Adenosine Triphosphatase or ATPase
Biochemical building blocks cells
The continuous removal and replacement of organic molecules other than DNA in a cell is part of the process called... metabolic turnover
The average time between synthesis and breakdown of an organic molecule in a cell turnover time
Organic molecules that can provide a sweet taste without adding substantial amounts of calories artificial sweetener
Group of elements including trace cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and harmful cadmium, antimony, chromium, mercury, lead, arsenic Heavy metals
The presence of excess cholesterol in the blood hypercholesterolemia
sickness resulting from exposure to radiation: fatigue, nausea, vomiting, loss of teeth and hair Radiation sickness
Created by: jenissing