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Medical Semester 1 r

Review over the first semester

What is a sagittal plane cut? divides left and right
What is transverse plane? divides top and bottom
What is afferent pathway? takes info to control center
What is anatomy study of structure of organism and it's relationship of it's part
what is appendicular bones of extremities
what is axial bones of chest, head, and spine
what is efferent away from control center
what is physiology? the study of body function
what is prone laying face downward
what is supine face upward
what id physio nature
what is ana apart
what does RUQ stand for? right upper quadrant
what structures are located on the RUQ? liver, right kidney, gull bladder, pancreas
what does LUQ stand for? left upper quadrant
what structures are located in LUQ ? liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, left kidney
what does RLQ stand for? right lower quadrant
Which structures are located in the RLQ? appendix, ascending colon, bladder, small intestine
what does LLQ stand for? left lower quadrant
which structures are located in the LLQ? bladder, small intestine, descending colon
what is the organization levels in order of the body? atoms->molecules->cell->tissue->organ->organ system->organism
what is positive feedback loop? doesn't change back to normal
list examples of positive feedback loop. child birth, blood clot
what is negative feedback loop. returns body to homeostasis
list examples of negative feedback loop. respiration rate, regulation of heart beat
List the organ systems. special senses, nervous, lymphatic, endocrine, digestive, urinary, skeletal, circulatory, muscular, and reproductive
what does the integumentary system do? protects body, eliminated some waste, regulates body temperature
what are the organs of the integumentary system? skin, sweat glands, oil glands, nail, hair
what is the function of the skeletal system? protects organ, framework of body, produces blood cells
what are the organs of the skeletal system? bones and cartilage
what is the function of the muscular system? maintains posture, movement, protects organs, produces heat
what are the organ of the muscular system? skeletal,smooth and cardiac muscles
what is the function of the nervous system/ coordinates and control body activities
what are the organs of the nervous system? nerves, spinal cord,
what is the function of the special senses> allows body to react to enviroment
what are the organs of the special senses? eye, tounge , ear, nose, general senses
what is the function of the circulatory system? carries nutrients and oxygen to cells, carries waste away from cell, helps produce cells to fight infection
what are the organs of the circulatory system? heart, blood vessels, blood, spleen
what is the function of the lymphatic system? fights infection
what are the organs of the lymphatic system? lymph nodes, lymph vessels, spleen, tonsils, and thymus gland
what is the function of the respiratory system? breathes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide
what are the organs of the respiratory system? lungs, pharynx, larynx, trachea , bronchi, nose
what is the function of the digestive system? digest food physically and chemically, transports food, absorbs nutrients, eliminates wastes
what are the organs of the digestive system? mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
what is the function of the urinary system> eliminates urine and filters blood
what are the organs of the urinary system? kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
what is the function of the endocrine system? produces and secretes hormones to regulate body process
what are the organs of the endocrine system? thymus glands, adrenal, thyroid, ovaries , testes , pancreas,parathyroid
what is the function of the reproductive system? provides reproduction
what are the organs of the reproductive system? testes, penis, urethra, prostate gland, ejaculatory duct, breasts, vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries
what is dist distance
what is the human body control system brain
which feedback loop is the most common? negative feedback loop
what sensor detects stimulus? effector
what is the effector's role in homeostasis? detects when body is not in normal place
the elbow is ___________ to the shoulder distal
the forehead is _________ to the mouth superior
the skin is __________ to the bones superficial
iso means same as
phag/o means Eat
adipos means fat
pseudo means false
what is ATP energy
what tissue is fat tissue? adipose tissue
what is the fluid substance located inside the cell? cytoplasm
what is stratified? many layers
What are the two type of transport process ? passive and active
Passive transport no energy needed; from high to low
active transport low to high; energy is required
Examples of passive transport diffusion, osmosis, filtration,
what is diffusion? movement of particles from high to lpw
what is osmosis? diffusion of water
what is filtration? movement of small solute particles through a filtration membrane
examples of active transport ion pump . pinocytosis. and phagocytosis
what is ion pump, movement of solute particles by means of carrier protein structure
what is phagocytosis movement of particles by trapping
what is pinocytosis movement of fluid by trapping
what are the 4 kinds of tissue epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous tissue
what is epithelial tissue ? covers body and lines body cavities, classified by shape and cells
transitional can stretch
simple squamous transportsn and found in alveoli lungs
stratified squamous protection and found in surface skin
stratified transitional protection and found in urinary bladder
pseudostratified protection and found in trachea
simple cuboidal seccretion and absorption . found in glands and kidney tubes
what is connective tissue? most widely spread
areolar between tissues and organs .
dense fibrous flexible but strong connection. found in tendons, ligiments, scar tissue
bone hard, skeleton, support protection
cartilage hard . covering the surface of bones. firm but flexible but flexible support
hemopoietic liquis, red bone marrow, transport (oxygen)
what is muscle tissue movement specialist, heals slowly
skeletal attach to bones, maintanance of posture, movement of bones,
cardiac wall of heart, contracting heart
smooth walls of digestive system and respiratory tracts, movement of substances along respective tracts
where is a cardiac tissue located> outside heart
what is the function of skeletal muscle tissue? help move the bone
what is the smallest unit of life? atom
where are ribosomes located in the cell? between plasma membrane and nucleus
brain coordinates body function
spinal cord` transmits messages to and from the brain
nerves transmits messages to and from the cns
-oid resembling
-um prescence of
-al pertaining to
dendrites transmits its impulses to neuron cell bodies
cell body main part of a neuron from which the dendrites and axon extend
nucleus control center of cell
axon nerve cell process that transmits impulses away from cell body
schwann cell nerve sheath
myelin in myelin sheath around some nerve fibers
sensory neurons transmits impulses to spinal cord and brain from all parts of the body
motor neurons transmits away from control center
interneuron nerves that conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons
what are the divisions of the nervous systems? Central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, automatic nervous system
CNS brain and spinal cord
PNS nerves
ANS invouluntary functions
neurotransmission conduction of electrical impulses in the nervous system
cranial nerve 1 olfactory
cranial nerve 2 optic
cranial nerve 3 oculomotor
cranial nerve 4 trochlear
cranial nerve 5 trigeminal
cranial nerve 6 abducens
cranial nerve 7 facial
cranial nerve 8 vestibulcochlear
cranial nerve 9 glossopharyngeal
cranial nerve 10 vagus
cranial nerve 11 Accesory
cranial nerve 12 hypoglossal
function of : olfactory smell
function of : optic sight
function of: oculomotor eye movement
Function of trochlear eye movement
function of: trigeminal sense of face, scalp, and teeth
function of: abducens eye movements
function of: facial sense of taste and facial expression
function of: vestibulcochlear hearing and balance
function of: glossopharyngeal sense of throat, taste and swallowing
function of:Vagus voice production and swallowing
function of : accesory shoulder movements , turning of head
function of: hypoglossal tounge movements
name two components of pns nerves , ans
what is nervous system responsible for? feeling pain, feeling pleasure, memory learning, comunication
what nervous system does not heal? cns
what is in the brain stem? pons, medulla oblongata, midbrain`
what is in the diencephlon hypothalmus, thalamus
what is the function of medulla oblongotta? responsible for cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor control center
what is the function of pons? influences respiration
what does midbrain do? visual and auditory impulses
what does hypothalmus do? regulation of body temp., water balance and sleep cycle, and appetite
what does thalamus? sensation, alerting mechanisms, emotions
what does cerebellum do? maintnance of equilibrium and posture
what does cerebrum do? sensory receptors, emotions, consiosness, thinking and memory
list lobes of brain frontal,parietal, ocipital, and temporal
what does frontal lobe do? emotion, eye movement, voluntary muscle movement,
what does parietal lobe do? sensation
what does ocipital lobe do? vision
what does temporal lobe do? hearing and speech
name three meninges arachnoid, pia matter, dura matter
what does the spinal cord do? telephone system
dura mater outer layer
arachnoid matter between layer
pia matter deepest layer
photoreceptors respond to light
step 1 in visual pathway light enters pupil and is refracted or bent so it is focused on retina
step 2 in visual pathway rods and cons respond to light by producing nervouse impulse that'll allow the brain to see what we are seeing
step 3 in visual pathway nervous signals leave retina and exit eye through optic nerve
step 4 in visual pathway optic nerve enters brain and travels to visual cortex in occipital lobe
constrict get smaller
dilate get bigger
Myopia nearsightedness, focuses in front of retina, eyeball long or lens thick
hyperobia farsightedness, focuses behind retina, eyeball to short or lens to thin
parts of ear external ear, middle ear, inner ear
auditory osicles in order malleus,incus,stapes
function of auditory osicles transmits sound vibrations.protect auditory appiratus, and equalize air pressure
bony labyrinth vestibule, semicircular canal, cochlea,
mebranous labyrinth filled with endolymph
step 1 hearing pathway sound waves enter external auditory canal and strike tympanic membrane causing it to vibrate
step 2 hearing pathway vibrations transmitted through auditory ossicles of the middle ear to the oval window
step 3 hearing pathway from oval window vibrations travel through the perilympth cochlea`
step 4 hearing pathway vibrations of membrane cause hair to beat against membrane of corti for impulses carried by sensory endings of the cochlear branch of vestibulcochlear nerve to brain
plicae Folds in small intestine
the elbow is ___ to the wrist proximal
four taste sensations sweet, sour, bitter, salty
superficial layer of skin stratum corneum
dermis is composed of what tissue? connective tissue
where are new cells produced? stratum germantitum
what type of muscle is the wall of the small intestine composed of? smooth
what division of the small intestine does most digestion ooccur? duodenum
division of small intestine duodenum,jejenum, ileum
what does saliva contain salivary amylase and mucous
where do you find cutaneous? skin
where do you find mucosa> urethra
where do you find serous line body cavities
what are the two layers of serous membranes. epithelial and connective tissue
what causes acne oil
what receptor is located deep in the dermis pacinian corpuscle
What is the difference between epithelial tissue and connective tissue? connective connects and epithelial protects and absorbs
Created by: bets98