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Stack #114380

phys ch. 10 pt. 1skeletal muscle

QuestionAnswer
Any movement requires which tissue? This is one function of this tissue. Muscle.
Why is muscle a significant source of body heat production? This is another function of muscle tissue. Metabolism produces heat, and there is a large amount of muscle tissue for metabolism to occur in.
What is defined as "supporting the body against gravity?" This is another function of muscle tissue. Posture
What organs do muscle primarily support? (Another function of muscle tissue.) The abdominal organs.
A skeletal muscle cell is also called what? A muscle fiber.
Why is it called skeletal muscle? It is attached to the skeleton.
What is the plasma membrane of the muscle cell called? The sarcolemma.
What are t-tubules? Tubules that extend into the cell, they carry the signal to contract to the inside of the cell.
What is the cytoplasm of the muscle cell and what type of energy-storage granules are contained therein? The sarcoplasm contains glycogen granules.
What cell is multinucleated? The muscle cell.
What is the endoplasmic reticulum of the muscle cell? The sarcoplasmic reticulum.
What are the energy organelles that produce ATP? mitochondria.
What are the contractile proteins found within muscle cells known as? myofibrils.
What are the two types of filaments found within the myofibril, and what are they made of? Thick filaments are made of myosin, and thin filaments are made of actin.
What is the arrangement of contractile proteins, subunits of the myofibril, called? Sarcomeres.
What produces the banded appearance of skeletal muscle? The arrangement of proteins in the sarcomere.
What is the A band also known as? The dark band.
What are the three main components of the A band? The M line, the H zone, and the zone of overlap.
What is the center of the dark band called? The M line.
What zone lies on each side of the M line and contains only thick filaments? The H zone.
What zone within the A (dark) line contains both thick and thin filaments? The zone of overlap.
What is the I band also known as? The light band.
What determined the beginning and end of one I band? The band runs from one A band to the next A band.
What type of filaments are found in the I band? Thin filaments only.
What line do the thin filaments attach to? The Z line.
What is the thick filaments main protein? Myosin.
What three components make up the structure of the thick filament? The tail, head, and hinge area.
What part of the thick filaments structure is long and attached to other myosin molecules? The tail.
What enzyme does the thick filaments head ac as? ATPase.
Which area of the thick filament allows the head to bend? The hinge area.
When the muscle cell is relaxed, which direction do the heads point? Away from the M line.
What is the elastic protein that extends from the Z-line to the thick filament? Titin.
What is the main protein of the thin filament? Actin.
What is the thin filaments round, globular protein called? G-actin. (Globulin)
What is a long filament of G-actin called? F-actin. (Filamentus)
What protein covers the active site of G-actin and what is the ratio of that protein to G-actin? There is 1 tropomysin protein molecule for every 7 G-actin protein molecules.
3 protein subunits make up which component of the thin filament? Troponin.
What do these three subunits each attach to? G-actin, tropomysin, and calcium.
Which line are the thin filaments attached to? The Z line.
What theory attempts to explain muscle contraction? Sliding filament theory. (apparently pretty much a sure thing.)
During muscle contraction, whic filaments slide to the center of the sarcomere? The thin filaments.
Do the thin and thick filaments change length during muscle contraction? No, they slide.
What happens to the sarcomere as a whole during muscle contraction? It gets shorter.
What is the junction between a neuron and muscle cells called? A neuromuscular junction.
What two parts make up the motor unit? One motor neuron and all the muscle cells it ennervates.
What is the neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle contraction that is released from the motor neuron? Acetylcholine. (ACh)
What is the end branch of the motor neuron? The synaptic terminal. (Where the ACh is)
What is the area of the sarcolemma next to the motor neuron? The motor end plate.
When an action potential reaches the synaptic terminal, which neurotransmitter is released? ACh is released from the synaptic terminal.
ACh binds to receptors located where? On the motor end plate.
After Ach binds to the motor end plate, where is action potential generated? In the sarcolemma.
Action potential spreads from the sarcolemma to where? The T tubules.
After the action potential spreads to the T tubules, what organelle is Ca++ released from? The sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Ca++, after release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, binds to a protein subunit. Which potein is the subunit part of? Troponin.
What protein is shifted after Ca++ binds to troponin? Tropomysin.
What happens when tropomysin is shifted that allows muscle contraction? Active sites on the G-actins are uncovered.
When active istes on G-actin are uncovered, what cycle begins? The contraction cycle.
What is the myosin head binds to actin? A cross-bridge formation.
What is the power stroke? Myosin moves actin towards the center of the sarcomere using stored energy.
How does cross-bridge dissociation occur? ATP binds to myosin head and breaks bond between thick and thin filaments.
What is myosin reactivation? ATP energy is stored in the myosin head.
What is the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine? Acetylcholinesterase.
What does calcium ATPase do? Moves calcium out of the sarcoplasm.
Where does calcium ATPase move sarcoplasmic calcium to? Back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
What is the kind of contraction that results from a single nerve impulse? Simple twitch.
What type of contraction is it when a stimulation directly follows complete relaxation? treppe.
What is several twitches that increases strength of contraction over time? wave summation.
What type of contraction is a rapid sequence of stimuli that produces a sustained contraction? tetanus.
What is the name of the small amount of contraction that is always present that stabilizes the body? muscle tone.
What are the three types of fibers? fast, slow, and intermediate.
What types of muscle fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly? Fast fibers.
What types of muscle filers contract slowly and fatigue slowly? Slow fibers.
What types of muscle fibers are between slow and fast muscle fibers? Intermediate fibers.
Which muscles have all three types of muscle fibers? All muscles have all three types of fibers, in varying ratios.
What type of fibers do the muscles that control posture have in abundance? Slow fibers.
In muscle, what is the phosphate source for ATP synthesis? Creatinine phosphate.
ADP + CP - -> ATP + C
What is the primary energy source for resting muscle? Fatty acids.
Where does contracting muscle get its energy? From glucose from blood and it breaks down glycogen into glucose.
What are the steps of glycogen metabolism? liver glycogen - glycogen - glucose - blood - muscle cell
If the muscle uses glucose for energy production aerobically, what is produced? ATP and CO2
If the muscle cell produces energy anerobically, what is produced? Energy and actic acid.
What is the path of muscle fatigue? Increase in lactic acid - decrease in pH - decrease in ATP synthesis - decreased contraction - muscle fatigue
What is the path of oxygen debt? Exercise hard - continue breathing hard after exercise - use 02 to oxidize lactic acid to regenerate ATP and phosphocreatinine.
What are the steps of the Cori cycle Lactic acid from skeletal muscle released into blood - liver converts it to glucose - released into blood - skeletal muscle uses glucose to make glycogen - glycolisis generates lactic acid
Created by: justinjune28 on 2008-01-16



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