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earth's interior

earth's interior vocabulary

Crust The thin rocky layer of the earth
Mantle The 280-kilometer thick layer of the earth located below the crust
Core The innermost layer of the earth, located beneath the mantle;
Asthenosphere A weak plastic layer of the mantle situated below the lithosphere; The rock within this zone is easily deformed; it allows the tectonic plates to move due to its plasticity
Mesosphere The layer of the atmosphere immediately above the stratosphere and characterized by decreasing temperatures with height
Lithosphere The rigid outer layer of the earth, including the crust and upper mantle
Seismic wave Waves produced by an earthquake; used to study the earth's interior.
S-wave A seismic wave that shakes particles perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling
P-wave Earthquake wave that pushes and pulls rocks in the direction of the wave; also known as a compression wave.
Shadow zone An area in which an S-wave is not detected due to it not being able to pass through the outter layer
Density less dense toward surface of earth; Mass per unit volume of a substance, usually expressed as grams per cubic centimeter; increases with depth into the earth
Pressure increases from the Earth's surface toward the core; the continuous physical force exerted on or against an object by something in contact with it.
Temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy of individual atoms or molecules in a substance.
Convection The transfer of heat by the movement of heated matter; currents form in mantle when heated material becomes less dense and rises then cools off and falls
Plasticity Asthenosphere is an example of this; due to increased pressure solids are moveable (like plastic)
Radiation The transfer of energy through space by electromagnetic waves
Magnetosphere the reigon surrounding the earth or another astromical body in which magnetic field is the predominant effective magnetic field.
inner core solid Ni and Fe
outer core liquid Fe & S
Earth's magnetic field caused by spinning of liquid outer core
tectonic plate movement thought to be caused by convection currents in the mantle
oceanic crust igneous rock, 7 km thick, 3 g/cm3 density, younger than continental crust
continental crust granitic rock, 8-75 km thick, 2.7 g/cm3 density, older than oceanic crust
seismic wave velocity speeds up as it enters the mantle, slows down when it reaches the outer core--a liuid (s waves stop and p waves bend), speeds up again as it enters the inner core (due to solid again)
asthenosphere layer that allows the tectonic plates to move
Created by: tboever17