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2 major contributors to pathogens and Germ Theory of Disease 1. Louis Paskur 2. Robert Koch
What is a sequence of experimental steps that verified the germ theory called? Koch's postulates
Every cell has 1._____ composed of 2.______ and 3._______ 1. ribosome 2. nucleic acid 3. protein
Important events in early stages of microbiology 1. Spores and sterilization 2. Spontaneous Generation vs. Germ Theory of Disease 3. Ascptic techniques
viral particles -not a cell (or noncellular) -passive -come by chance -type of infection particles that rely on cells to reproduce
Who was the first person to document microorganisms? Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
What means the image will remain in focus when changing from a lower power objective lens to a higher-power lens? parfocal
What is the type of microscope we use in lab? compound light microscope
total magnification equals? objective lens X(times) ocular lens
pathway of light on microscope condenser lens to> objective lens to> ocular lens
resolution -ability to show detail -shortest distance between two separate dots that can be "seen" as two discrete objects
working distance (of a lens) -distance between the lens and microscope slide
light microscope max ___________ (#) .2μm -i.e. any 2 dots closer than .2μm will be seen as one dot
1 μm =_______(m) 1 μm =10^(-6) m
1 nm = _______(m) 1 nm = 10^(-9) m
electron microscope max ________ (#) .5nm
1 μm =_______(nm) 1000nm
smaller magnification value equals ________ resolution lower
Indicate what about the following factors are useful:1. wave length 2. color of light 3.beam vs. light 1. wave length: shorter wavelength the better the resolution 2. blue light is better than white light 3. electron beam is better than visible light
What collects and directs the light from the lamp to the slide being studied? condenser
What moves up and down as you turn the main knob? mechanic stage
There are three or more of these on a microscope Each one contains a different magnification Changes from low to> high power objective lens
What do you look through to view the image on the microscope (its where you put your eyes and fixed at 10x) ocular lens
microbiology the study of microorganisms
most widely used specimen is darker than surrounding field Bright-field
brightly illuminated specimens surrounded by dark-field
transforms subtle changes in light waves passing through the specimen into differences in light intensity, best for observing structure intracellular certain light can lead and certain light added phase-contrast
fluorescence microscope -modified compound light microscope -very useful in medical diagnosis and cell biology Features: 1. dark background 2. dye binds specimen 3. emitted visible light magnified needs filter protect viewers eye 4. dye UV rays
electron microscope -uses electron beam to form image rather than light rays -electrons travel wavelike pattern -wavelength is 100,000x shorter than the waves of visible light -electrons have tremendous resolving power and magnifying power
electron microscope: 1. resolving power 2. magnifying power 1. 0.5 nm (vs. 0.2μm for light microscope) 2. 1,000,000x (vs. 1000x for light microscope)
eucaryotic cells -bigger -has a nucleus -more complex
procaryotic cell -simple cell -DNA is in cytosol -bacteria and archaea -unicellular
List 4 eucaryotic cells 1. Algae 2. Protoxoa 3. Fungi (molds, yeasts, mushrooms, etc.) 4. helminths (tapeworms, flukes, nematodes, etc.)
algae and protozoa make up what group? and live in_________ and ___________ cellular 1. protists 2. aquatic environment 3. unicellular
list 2 types of procaryotes 1. Bacteria (such as E. coli) 2. Archaea (ancient "bacteria" such as methanogens)
yeast -much bigger -eucaryote -fungi (category) -unicellular
amoeba -cytoplasm proteins needle like or worm rounded -protozoa (category) -pseudopods help move around and eat food particles
E. coli -round shaped bacteria
herpes simplex (EM) -membrane takes from your cell takes pieces of cell membrane -virus
ascaris -most common infection worm -nervous function different from other functions -adult bad
algae reproduce, swim, survive
Size important in general Eucaryotes > Procaryotes > Viruses > macromolecules > simple molecules
a system for organizing and classifying names taxonomy
primary concerns of taxonomy are (3)_______ 1. classification 2. nomenclature 3. identification
What is the most significant level of classification? species
levels of classification 1.Domain 2.Kingdom 3.Phylum or Division 4.Class 5.Order 6.Family 7.Genus 8.Species
Whittaker classification vs. Dr. Woese Whittaker: 5-Kingdom classification System Woese: Domain>Kingdom>archaea more closly related then bacteria
true bacteria such as E. coli staphylococus aureus eubacteria
eubacteria characteristic about cell wall -cell wall macromolecules, peptidoglycan is only found in bacteria
archaea odd "bacteria" that live in extreme environments, high salt, heat, etc. [such as methanology halobacteria]
have a nucleus and organelles such as molds, amoeba, algae eukarya
Every time you name an organism what do you use? Genus and Species -Genus named first and first letter capitalize -Species named second both italized
What does "sterile" mean? "sterile" was introduced which meant completely eliminating all life forms from objects or materials, including endospores
Who identified spores? John Tyndall and Ferdinand Cohn
disease-causing microorganisms pathogens
Germ Theory of Disease -many (infections) diseases are caused by the growth of microbes in the body and not by sins, bad character, or poverty, etc.
Who is associated with the Listerine method? Joseph Lister
Who am I? -demonstrated what is now known as Germ Theory of Disease Louis Pasteur
Who am I? -showed microbes caused fermentation Louis Pasteur
Who am I? -identified cause of anthrax, TB, and cholera Robert Koch
Who am I? -developed pasteurization Louis Pasteur
Who am I? -established Koch's postulates Robert Koch
Who am I? -disproved spontaneous generation of microorganisms Louis Pasteur
Who am I? -developed pure culture methods Robert Koch
Who am I? -developed a rabies vaccine Louis Pasteur
methanococcus jannaschii not bacteria rather it is archaea mold filamentous fungi
numerical aperture (NA) can effect resolution mathematical expression showing efficiency of lens gathering light Na: 1.25 better than .1 Na=nsinθ (n-1, sinθ-shape of light come) the greater the angle the shorter the working distance the greater the NA value
Who introduced the aseptic technique? Joseph Lister
microorganisms organisims to small to see with the naked eye
mold filimentus fungi
Can you increase resolution by increasing the n value in NA formula (NA=nsinθ) yes Ex: increase n by using immersion oil n=1.5 [100x objective lens only]
What is definition of life? distinguished by capacity to grow, metabolize, respond (to stimuli), adapt and reproduce
What is disinfecting the hands using chemicals prior to surgery and the use of heat for sterilization to prevent wound infections called? aseptic technique
Created by: mjoyriegsecker