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Liz's Genetics Final

studying for my Genetics final

What's an enzymes role? Control the rate or reactions in a cell by lowering activation energy of a reaction
Enzyme is what kind of molecule? Catalyst
How can enzymes be rendered useless? Competitive and Non Competitive inhibition
Protien Folding Errors Misfolding
Ubiquitin- Deffinition Tags misfolded protiens
Transcription Manufacturing RNA from DNA
Translation Assembly of an amino acid chain according to sequence of base triplets in a molecule of mRNA
Neural Tube A structure in the embryo that develops into the brain and spinal cord. Does not completely develop until day 20. If it doesn't zip all the way, a Neural Tube defect occurs.
Teratogens A substance that causes a birth defect. Ex: Thalidomide, Cigarettes, Alcohol
Thalidomide Alleviate nausea during early pregnancy, a critical period for limb development. BAD
Birth Defects Genetic abnormalities or toxic exposures can affect development in an embryo or fetus.
Critical Periods (birth defects) The time during prenatal development when a structure is sensitive to damage from a mutation or an environmental intervention.
DNA Structure G and A are purines C and T are Pyrimidines
Epigenetics A layer of information placed on a gene that is a modification other than a change in DNA sequence, such as methylation.
Penetrance Percent of individuals with a genotype whohave associated phenotype.
Histones A type of protein in which a DNA entwines.
Stem Cells/ Stem Cell Research Cells that give rise to other stem cells,as well as to cells that differentiate.
Polygenics Traits determined by more than one gene.
Oogenesis Oocyte development. -the female gamete (sex cell)
Spermatogenesis Sperm cell differentiation.
Promoter Sequence A control sequence near the start of a gene.
Blastocyst implantation and hCG pregnancy Blastocyst- a hollow clump of cells descended from a fertilized ovum.
Crossing Over An event during prophase 1 when homologs exchange parts.
Independent assortment The random arrangement of homologous chromosome pairs, in terms of maternal of paternal origin, down the center of a cell in mataphase 1. Inheritance of a gene on one chromosome does not influence inheritance of a gene on a different chromosome.
Cancer A group of disorders resulting from loss of cell cycle control.
Consanguinuty Blood relatives having children together. (incest)
Mutations A change in a protein-encoding gene that affects the phenotype and occurs in less than one percent of a population.
Mitochondrial DNA A single cell can yield hundreds or thousands of copies of the mitochondrial genome.
Mutations- misconceptions -All bad-- freaks of nature -TMNT, AVATAR, X-Men, Spiderman -Extra or missing limbs -Major things
Mutations- reality -Any change in DNA -Most are silent- not in DNA read by the cell OR DNA change does not change protien -Those that change the protien= almost all harmful changes -Very few are benificial or have neutral effects (you will NOT get superpowers)
Deletion A missing sequence of DNA or part of chromosome. THE ONE BIG ___ HAD ONE RED EYE
Frameshift A mutation that alters a gene's reading frame. THE ONE QBI GFL YHA DON ERE DEY
Expanding Repeats A disease or mutations that worsens with each generation because the gene expands. THE ONE BIG FLY HAD ONE RED EYE THE ONE BIG FLY FLY HAD ONE BIG EYE..
Insertion A mutation that adds DNA bases. THE ONE BIG WET FLY HAD ONE BIG RED EYE.
Missense A single base change mutatioin that alters an amino acid. THQ ONE BIG FLY HAD ONE BIG RED EYE.
Nonsense Apoint mutation that changes an amino acid coding codon into a stop codon, prematurely terminating synthesis of the encoded protien. THE ONE BIG ___ ___ ___ ___
Splice Site Alters a site where introns are normally removed from the mRNA, ends prematurly.
Tanded Duplication A Duplication DNA sequence next to line original sequence.
Duplication An extra sequence of DNA or part of a chromosome. THE ONE BIG FLY FLY HAD ONE RED EYE.
Paracentric Inversion Does NOT include the centromore.
Pericentric Inversion DOES include the centromere within the loop.
Translocation Different (nonhomologous) chromosomes exchange or combine parts.
Created by: LizWants2Rock