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Path 11

Male Genital System

What is it called when the urethra opens on the ventral surface of the penis Hypospadius
What is it called when the urethra opens on the dorsal surface of the penis Epispadias
Is epispadias or hypospadias more likely to be associated with defects in the urethral valve Epispadias
What is it called when the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis secondary to an abnormally small prepuce orifice Phimosis
What is the most common penile malformation Phimosis
What is paraphimosis When a phimotic foreskin is forcibly retractedovre the glans and cannot be restored (potential for necrosis of the penis glans and urinary retension)
What is Peyronie's Disease abnormal proliferation of benign fibrous tissue within the shaft of the penis associated with curvature and pain during erection
What is a persistent erection of the penis due to thrombosis of the corpora cavernosa and spongiosum called Priapism
What is a wart like that is often caused by HPV Condyloma accuminatum
What is Condyloma lata a form of secondary syphilis (this does appear to be different from the lesion caused by HPV)
You see a patient with pink-red velvety plaques on his penis... you should suspect what carcinoma in situ? Erythroplasia of Queyra or Bowen's disease
What are the only carcinomas of the penis Squamous cell type
What HPV viruses play a role in Squamous Cell Carcinoma formation HPV types 16 and 18
What is it called when the testis fail to descend Cryptorchidism
What are two important sequelae for cryptorchidism failure of spermatogenesis and increased risk for the development of germ cell testicular tumors
You have a young child with excruciating testicular pain following physical activity what should you think of? Testicular torsion
What is it called when there is an abnormal enlargement of the venous vascular plexus within the spermatic cord Varicocele
What is a hydrocele? Serous fluid in tunica vaginalis
What is a spermatocele? cystic dilation of epididymis (contains motile sperm)
When do most germ cell tumors develop most develop postpuberty, during late adolescence or early adulthood
what is the most common germ cell tumor of the testis seminoma (35-70%)
How sensitive are seminomas to radiation very (5-year survival is 90-95%)
Gross appearance of a seminoma yellow to tan with little or no necrosis
Gross appearance of embryonal carcinoma hemorrhagic and necrotic
how responsive are embryonal carcinomas to radiation unlike seminomas these are not as responsive to radiation but the have a 95% + cure rate due to newer chemotherapies
A yolk sac tumor is also known as ? Endodermal sinus tumor
What are two markers of Yolk Sac Tumors Alpha-fetoprotein as well as alpha-1 antitrypsin
what are teratomas carcinomas composed of two or more germ cell layers (endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal)
How do mature and immature teratomas differ Mature teratomas are composed of haphazard arrays of normal adult tissue while immature are composed of fetal appearing tissues often of neural differentiation
In what age group do you worry about malignant potential with Teratomas in postpubertal males all testicular teratomas must be assumed to have at least some malignant potential
How do Teratomas spread They spread by lymphatic and hematogenous routes
What two components must be present in order to diagnose Choriocarcinoma both cytotrophoblasts and syncytotrophoblasts must be present to make the diagnosis
Choriocarcinomas produce ______ which can be used as a helpful serum marker of disease progression human chorionic gonadotropin
When you have a mixed germ cell tumor is the prognosis more often that of the better or worst component more often the prognosis reflects that of the worse component
what are the three stages of testicular cancer Stage1-local Stage 2-Retroperitoneal lymph node disease and Stage 3-Distant Disease
You have a parent who states that their male child has only a dribble for a urine stream what congenital prostate abnormality could explain this finding stenotic urethral valve in the prostatic urethra
What part of the prostate is most affected by nodular hyperplasia the central portion of the gland with sparing of the peripheral zone
what is the most common carcinoma in males adenocarcinoma
where do adenocarcinomas of the prostate tend to develop in the peripheral zone
What is often elevated in patiens with prostatic carcinomas Prostate specific antigen
Created by: UVAPATH1