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Path 10

Thyroid Pathology

Release of T3 and T4 from the thyroid is controlled mostly by ? TSH
What controls TSH TRH from the hypothalamus
The Thyroid hormone negative feedback loop is dependent upon ? IODINE
most thyroid hormone is bound by? throxine binding globulin
Is thyroid hormone active or inactive when bound to thyroxine binding globulin not active
C-cells release? calcitonin (helps regulate serum calcium levels)
Most congenital thyroid abnormalities develop secondary to ? migration problems during embryogenesis
what are some common congenital thryoid abnormalities lingual thyroid, thyroglossal duct cysts, ectopic thyroid, lateral aberrant thyroid, congenital hypothyroidism
what is linual thyroid when the thyroid tissue is left at the base of the tongue instead of migrating
what is a thyroglossal duct cyst when the glandular tissue is left between the tongue and the thyroid gland and becomes cystic
where do you see congenital hypothyroidism more frequently in parts of the world where iodine deficiency is common
what is a goiter a neck mass but is often used as a term for patients with noticeable thyroid enlargement secondary to hyperplasia
what does thyroid hyperplasia look like histologically enlarged follicles that vary greatly in size with abundant intermixed fibrosis calcification, and hemorrhage
what are symptoms of hyperthyroid hypermetabolic state and symptoms such as tachycardia, sweating, weight loss, tremor, oligomenorrhea, fine hair, diarrhea, and exophtalmos
What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism Graves disease (due to IgG antibodies that function as agonists to the TSH receptor
what are some risk factors for Graves Disease Women are more commonly affected, may have familial disposition, and smoking may be considered a risk factor
what are characteristics of hypothyroidism myxedema, boggy skin, bloated appearance, dry cool skin and hoarse deepened voice, depression, lethargy, sensory defects, dulled tendon reflexes, cardiomegaly, constipation, anovulation and erectile dysfunction
what is thyroiditis inflammation of the thyroid gland (autoimmunity or infection usually)
what is the most common type of thyroiditis hashimoto (autoimmune)
how does Hashimoto thyroiditis appear grossly diffusely enlarged somewhat nodular thyroid gland which can weigh up to 200 grams
what do you note histologically with thyroiditis lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with atrophic follicles, fibrosis, and oxiphilic metaplasia
What are two common causes of acute thyroiditis hematogenous spread of an organism or direct trauma to the gland
What is De Quervain's thyroiditis self limited thyroiditis characterized clinically by fever, thyroid dysfunction, and rarely a mass
What does De Quervain's thyroiditis look like histologically lymphocytes, mutinucleated giant cells and histiocytes (granulomas) surrounding damaged follicles
What is the most common malignancy of the thyroid gland Papillary Carcinoma (70-90%)
What are risk factors for papillary carcinoma previous irratiation, thyroiditis, hyperplasia, iodine excess and genetic mutation
How does Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma appear grossly white firm gritty mass
How does Papillary Carcinoma appear histiologically numerous branching papillae with fibrovascular cores and follicle formation with fibrosis and psammoma bodies
Papillary carcinoma is defined by ? nuclear features (orphan Annie Eyes), nuclear pseudoinclusions adn grooves
what is the most common type of neoplasm of the thyroid gland follicular adenomas
what is the gross appearance of follicular adenoma single well defined lesion surrounded by a capsule. The lesion has a fleshy appearance and are usually less than 5 cm in size
do follicular carcinomas or papillary carcinomas show hematogenous spread follicular carcinoma
Do follicular carcinomas metastasize? yes up to 50% will metastasize
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is thought to develop from? pre-existing papillary or follicular carcinoma
What is the prognosis of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid Universally fatal (most patients die within 6 months of their diagnosis)
Medullary carcinoma may be associated with MEN syndromes 2A and 2B because of germline mutations of ? RET gene
Medullary Carcinomas secrete what hormone Calcitonin
what is the five year survival of medullary carcinoma 50%
Created by: UVAPATH1