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Bosch- Genetics

genotype actual gene combination of an organism
phenotype the physical appearance of an organism
genetics the scientific study of heredity
alleles the different forms of a gene
traits a distinguishing quality that can be passed from one generation to another
recessive allele an allele whose trait is masked in the presence of a dominant allele
genes segments of DNA that carry hereditary instructions and are passed from parent to offspring
hybrid an organism with two different alleles for a trait
heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring
dominant allele an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism
mutation a change in the order of the bases in an organism's DNA
pedigree a diagram of family history used for tracing a trait through several generations
genetic engineering allows scientists to transfer genes from one organism to another
probability the mathematical chance that an event will occur
selective breeding the breeding of organisms that have a certain desired trait
law of independent assortment each gene pair is inherited independently from the gene pairs for all other traits
law of segregation passing of only one gene for each trait
incomplete dominance when one trait is not completely dominant over another (each allele has its own degree of influence)
sex cells carries half the number of chromosomes found in other body cells
offspring resulting organism
self-pollinating plant has female and male reproductive structure
true-breeding plant all offspring have the same traits as the parent
cross pollination pollen from one plant fertilizes the ovule fo a flower on a different plant
homozygous two dominant or two recessive alleles (genes)- PP or pp
heterozygous one dominant and one recessive allele (Pp)
homologous chromosomes chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure (like a pair of shoes)
meiosis copying process that produces cells with half the usual number of chromosomes. Sex cells are made and each receives one-half of each homologous pair
human egg cell has ____ chromosomes 23
The union of the egg cell and sperm cell produces ___ chromosomes 46
sex chromosomes one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
Created by: seagullq