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Science Year 10 Exam

For Year 10 Science

What is an atom? Smallest piece of matter.
What is an element? Something that is made of only one type of atom.
What is a compound? A compound is lots of molecules together eg. a glass of water that contains hydrogen and oxygen aka H2O.
What charge does an electron have? A negative charge.
What charge does a proton have? A positive charge.
What charge does a neutron have? Neutral or no charge.
What does the atomic number of an atom tell us? The number of protons in an atoms nucleus.
What does the mass number of an atom tell us? The number of protons and neutrons in an atoms nucleus.
What is the periodic table? A chart of all known elements.
What are the columns on a periodic table called? Groups which are vertical.
What are rows on a periodic table called? Periods which are horizontal.
What does the group number tell us about the atoms in that group? How many electrons there are in the outer shell.
What does the period number tell us about the atoms in that group? How many shells of electrons are in the atom.
Where are the noble gases found in the periodic table? The 18th or last group.
What is so special about noble gases? They have a full outer shell and therefore are unreactive.
Where are the metals and non metals found on the periodic table? Metals are found on the left hand side and non metals are found on the right hand side.
How many electrons, protons and neutrons are found in silicon and what is it's mass number? 14 electrons, 14 protons and 14 neutrons are found in silicon with a mass number of 28.
What is an ionic compound made up of? An ionic compound is made up of a metal and a non metal.
What is a covalent compound made up of? A covalent compound is made up of a non metal and a non metal.
What are the reactants in a chemical reaction and where are they found in a chemical equation. They are the chemicals that are mixed together to make a reaction, and are found on the left hand side of a chemical equation.
What are the products in a chemical reaction and where are they found in a chemical equation? They are the chemicals that results from a reaction and are found on the right side of a chemical equation.
What does the law of conservation of mass state? In every reaction mass is not lost or gained, the final mass of the reaction therefore equals the starting mass of the reaction.
When an acid is added to a carbonate, carbon dioxide gas is produced. Describe a test to find out if it's actually carbon dioxide. Mix carbon dioxide through lime water, if it is CO2 lime water will turn milky white.
When an acid is added to a metal, hydrogen gas and salt is produced. Describe how to test that the gas is hydrogen. If the gas is trapped and makes a popping sound when a match is added it is hydrogen.
How can we test if gas produced in a lab is oxygen? Oxygen gas will reignite a glowing splint.
List fours ways in which you can increase the reaction rate. 1. Add more reactants 2. Increase the surface area of the reactants 3. Increase the concentration of the reactants 4. Temperature change. BONUS ROUND- add a catalyst
Why does increasing the surface area of a reactant increase the reaction rate? Increasing the surface area causes more particles to be exposed and the more particles there are the more collisions occur between particles.
Why does increasing the temperature of the reactant increase the particles rate of reaction? Increasing the temperature increases the speed of the particles in the reaction and makes it more likely for collisions to occur more commonly.
Why are catalyst important in industry? They makes reactions go faster so that product can be produces as quickly as possible.
What is an ion? A charged atom, one that has either lost or gained electrons.
What is an anion? An anion is a negatively charged ion meaning that it has gained electrons.
What is a cation? A cation is a positively charged ion meaning that it has lost electrons.
What is organic chemistry the study of? It is the study of carbon compounds.
What two elements make up a hydrocarbon? Hydrogen and Carbon.
What is the general formula for an alkane? CnH2n + 2 for all single bonds.
What are some uses of alkanes? Fuels and cigarette lighter fluid.
What is the general formula for an alkene? CnH2n it contains one double carbon to carbon bond with the rest being single bonds.
What are some uses of alkenes? Fuel production and the production of plastics.
What is a combustion reaction? A reaction where a compound is added to oxygen.
What is the difference between complete and incomplete combustion? Complete combustion is where there is plenty of oxygen and the products that are produced are carbon dioxide and water. While incomplete combustion is where is only a limited supply of oxygen and so carbon monoxide and water are produced.
What does adaptation mean? An adaptation is a feature that allows an organism to survive in a particular environment.
What is a structural adaptation? A change or mutation in the genetics which are physically inherited from ancestors.
What is a behavioral adaption? Adaptions in behavior to survive and reproduce such as courtship to attract a mate.
What is evolution? Evolution is the concept that a species can change and give rise over time to new forms.
Explain Lamarck's theory of evolution. Lamarck suggested that a population shows no variation and that organs became stronger with use and weaker with disuse. Those organs that are used change and those that aren't used disappear. There is no evidence to back this up.
Describe Charles Darwin's theory of evolution worked. Natural Selection suggests that animals with favorable characteristics that they have either inherited or mutated are more likely to survive in their in their environment. They can then pass their genetics to offspring.
Explain did myxamotosis become practically obsolete in rabbits after years of reproduction? Through natural selection the rabbits who were immune to the disease survived and produced offspring with immunity. Because of their fast breeding rate they were able to outgrow most strains of the virus.
What does select for mean? Selected for refers to the traits that are advantageous.
What does selected against mean? Selected against refers to traits that are a disadvantage to an animal.
What does variation mean? Variations are differences in appearance in a population of organisms. Variations are important incase there is a sudden change in their environment.
What is selection pressure? Selection pressure is something in the environment that threatens the population.
Give three examples of selection pressure. Habitat loss, predators, climate change, disease, water and food availability.
What is speciation? The formation of a new species.
How do we know two animals aren't of the same species? When they cannot reproduce and make fertile offspring.
Explain the three steps of speciation: Geographical isolation, two populations are split up. Because of the different environmental pressures they evolve differently. Eventually speciation occurs and they no longer can breed.
What is divergent evolution? Divergent evolutions have share common ancestors but speciation has occurred.
What is convergent evolution? Convergent evolution is where different species share similarities because of environmental pressures. Though, they do not share common ancestry.
What is a vertebrate? Animals that have spines.
Created by: eliza123