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Ch. 8 anatomy&phis.

muscualr system

Skeletal Muscle composed of thousands of muscle fibers attached to the bone -moves parts of the skeleton -striated -voluntary muscle -limited capacity for regeneration
Smooth Muscle -only in the heart -forms the bulk of the heart wall -striated -involuntary muscle -can regenerate under certain conditions
Cardiac Muscle -in walls of internal structures -participates in internal proccesses -nonstriated -involuntary muscle -limited compacity to regenrate
5 Functions of Muscular tissue -Producing body movements -Stabilizing body positions -Regulating organ volume -Moving substances within the body -Producing heat
Function of Fascia Holds muscles together and seperates them into functional groups
Composition and function of a tendon a chord of dense regular connective tissue composed of parallel bundles of collagen fibers -it attaches muscle to the bone
Function of sacrolemma and t-tubules sacrolemma covers each muscle fiber and t-tubules extend offf the sacrolemma and pass through the fibers from side to side
Myofibril cylindrical structures that extend along the length of muscle fiber consist of thin filaments and thick filaments which give the muscle the striated appearance
Function of actin tropomysin and troponin protein in thin filaments actin protein joins togther to create to a actin filament where tropomysin and troponin attach to it
4 events of a Neuromuscular function -Release of acetylcholine -Activation of ACh receptors -Generation of muscle actio potential -Breakdown of ACh
Parts of a Neuromusclar function muscle action potential motor unit axon motor end plate synaptic cleft
events the cause a muscular contraction and relaxtion (1-4) 1. nerve impulses at motor neuron triggers the release of ACh 2. ACh diffuses across of synaptic cleft and triggers muscle action potential 3.Synaptic cleft destroys ACh to stop another muscle AP 4. Muscle AP travels along t-tubules and releases Ca2+
Events the cause a muscular contraction and relaxtion (5-9) 5.Ca binds to tropnin expose myosin binding site 6.power strokes use ATP thin filaments are pulled to center of sacrcomere 7.Ca2+ release in SR close & pumps use ATP to restore low level of Ca2+ ions 8.Troponin-tropomyosin slides back 9.muscle relaxes
Ducheyenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy occurs in boys, affects the same gene but with different defects
Cramps sudden brief painful contraction of muscle caused by inadequete blood flow, low blood levels of potassium
Fibromyalgia cause is usually unknown may be worsened by physical/mental stress symptoms: aching stiffness and pain worsens with fatigue tender in "trigger points"
Shin Splints cause: lifting the heel just before the toe pushes off source: muscles in the back and inner parts of the shin
Muscle Strain tenderness and swelling in the muscle painful spasms might cause bruising
Tendon Inflammation cause: stong/ repeated movement creates excessive friction, maybe caused by overstrecthing Sources: the tendon or the inner linning of fibrous sheaths that enclose some tendons
Myasthenia Gravis symptoms: weak drooping eyelids, weak eye muscles double vision excessive fatigue after exercise
Created by: rachel_gilpin