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Muscular System Ch.8

study guide flash cards for A&P 2012

Describe the characteristics of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. Skeletal: attached to bones, moves with skeleton, striated, voluntary Cardiac: found only in heart, forms bulk of heart wall, striated, involuntary Smooth: in hollow internal structures, nonstriated, involuntary
Describe the five functions of muscular tissue. Mov't:rely on bones, joints, and skeletal mus.,Posture:skeletal mus. contracions stabilize joints,Regulate: sphincters of smooth mus. prevents overflow in hollow organs,Subtnc.:cardiac pumps blood,sooth regulates, skeletal=blood return,Heat:shivering(sk)
Describe the function of fascia. holds muscles together and separates them into functional groups
Describe the function of sarcolemma, and t-tubules. sarcolemma:thin membrane enclosing a striated muscle fiber t-tubules:conduct action potential throughout muscle fiber
Describe the composition and function of a myofibril. reddish pigment, stores oxygen until needed by mitochondria to generate ATP
Describe the function of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin. actin:join to form an actin filament in a helix tropomyosin and troponin: cover the myosin-binding sites on actin in relaxed muscle fibers
Describe the parts of a neuromuscular junction. axon with axon terminals that have synaptic end bulbs, which contain synaptic vesicles filled with a chemical neurotransmitter
Describe the events that happen at an neuromuscular junction. relaese of acetylcholine(ACh)-> activation of ACh receptors-> generation of muscle action potential-> Breakdown of ACh
Summarize the events that cause contraction and relaxation in a skeletal muscle fiber. Myosin heads split ATP and become reoriented and energized->Myosin heads bind to actin, forming a crossbridge->Myosin heads rotate toward center of the sarcomere->As myosin heads bind ATP, the crossbridges detach from the actin
Describe the causes of Ducheyenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy. It is a recessive gene carried on the x chromosome. The disease only affects males, but can be carried by the mother.
Define "cramp" and summarize their causes. Cramps are sudden, brief usually painful contractions of a muscle or group of muscles. They occur in healthy people, usually during or after exercise due to inadequate blood flow to the muscle.
Describe the causes and symptoms of Fibromyalgia. Causes: Unknown, can be worsened by physical or mental stress, poor sleep, reoccurring strains, injury and chronic exposure to dampness and cold. Symptoms: widespread pain and stiffness, poor sleep, anxiety, depression, fatigue, Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
Describe the source of pain in shin splints and their cause. The shin muscles pull the foot up and calf pulls it down while walking, etc. Calf muscles exert so much force, they can injure the shin muscle. This is due to opposite muscle groups that are used for one function.
Describe the symptoms of a muscle strain. severe pain, swelling, bleeding
Describe the sources of pain in tendon inflammation and causes for tendon inflammation. Sources of pain: tendon itself or inner lining of fibrosis sheaths Causes: overexertion, sudden pulling, friction between outer surface and adjacent bone
Describe the symptoms of myasthenia gravis. weak drooping eyelids, double vision, excessive fatigue, difficulty speaking and swallowing, weakness of arms and legs
Describe the composition and function of the tendon. It is composed of parallel bundles of collagen fibers and attached muscle to a bone.
Created by: 805628613