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What is the definition of Salinity? The total amount of salts dissolved in water.
What is the units for measuring salinity? PPT, Parts Per Thousand. O/OO.
Why is salinity measured in parts per thousand? It eliminates the occasional decimal.
Where do you find water with a salinity of 0 PPT? Distilled water, not found in nature.
What is the salinity of lakes, rivers, streams and freshwater? ~1PPT
What is the salinity at river basins? ~2PPT to ~32PPT
What do you call water with a salinity of ~2PPT to ~32PPT? Brackish
What is the range for the salinity of ocean water? 33PPT to 37PPT
What is the salinity of the Great Salt Lake? 270PPT
What is the salinity of the Dead Sea? 315PPT
What is the highest salinity possible? If heated? 360PPT or 400PPT if heated
How did the ocean get salty? Rivers flow into the ocean but evaporation is occurring. The water evaporates and leaves behind salts and it becomes saturated.
Does the ocean have negatively or positively charged salts? Both. Negatively charged ions are called anions, and come from volcanic gasses. Positively charged ions are called cations and come from weathering of rocks.
Are all large bodies of water salty? No. The oceans are, and some lakes. But not all lakes.
Why aren't the Great Lakes salty? The salts don't evaporate out of them. They have an outflow and it's like the lakes are a big, slow river.
Why is the Great Salt Lake and the Dead Sea salty? It is an enclosed basin meaning it has inflow but no outflow.
Why does everyone float in the Great Salt Lake? The water is incredibly dense.
What kind of fish can you catch in the Great Salt Lake? None. Only Brine Shrimp, or sea monkeys, can handle the salinity.
What are the top two most abundant ions in the ocean? What are their percentages? Chloride=55%, Sodium=31%
What percentage do the top 6 ions in the ocean make up? 99%
Why are chloride and sodium the two most abundant elements in the ocean? River water evaporates into salt. The top three most abundant ions in river water form CaCO3, and SiO2 and sulfate, the fourth most abundant, sulfur, is used to make animal shells. That leaves chloride and sodium become the two most abundant in the ocean.
What is the definition of residence time? The amount of time that any ion stays dissolved. Ions don't want to stay dissolved forever.
What is the principle of constant proportions? The relative abundance of major ions are constant in the ocean.. Chloride is always 55% and sodium is always 31%. This is only true for the ocean.
Why does the principle of constant proportions matter? 1. It tells us that the oceans are well mixed by current and that water is being moved by currents. 2. It makes measuring salinity much easier.
What are the three ways to measure salinity? 1. Wet chemical analysis 2. Electrical conductivity 3. Light refraction
How do you measure salinity with wet chemical analysis? Titration.
What is the equation for salinity? Salinity(PPT)=1.8xCl(PPT) 1.8x18g/kg=~35PPT
What is the relationship between salinity and electrical conductivity? The higher the salinity the better the conductivity.
How do you use electrical conductivity to measure salinity? CTD, conductivity temperature depth, gives continuous data. CTD lowered then brought back up. Gathers data and sends it to computer as it's brought back up.
What are the two ways to collect water samples to measure salinity? Van Dorn Bottle or Nansen Bottle
How is salinity measured with light refraction? Light bends, as salinity increases, so does refraction. It is measured with a refractometer. It is easy to use, but not the most accurate.
What is the salt balance? Salinity has been roughly constant for 15 billion years. It means that the salt input is equal to the salt output. It creates a dynamic equilibrium.
What are 4 ways the salt balance occurs? Biogenous sediments take the calcium. Fish ingest the salt, excrete it, then it is is buried by sediment. Chemical/nonbiogenous absorption onto clays. Salt spray onto land.
What is chemical/nonbiogenous absorption onto clays? Clays have a net negative charge and attract positively charged salts. Salts attach, clay sinks to the bottom and is buried.
What is density layering? How the ocean is well layered by density from top to bottom. Water masses acquire their density characteristics at the surface then sink to the appropriate level.
How do you measure temperature with a reversing thermometer? It is on a Nansen bottle. The bottle flips over and the mercury is trapped, recording the temperature at a specific depth.
How do you measure temperature with a bathythermograph? The BT sinks to the bottom, graphing temp and depth. Tube compresses as it gets deeper, has coil of temp sensitive metal. Works like an etch-a-sketch. Can be used while boat is moving. Invented by the Navy.
What is an XBT? Expendable Bathythermograph. Modern version of the BT invented in the 70s. Recordings sent along a thin wire and then disposed.
How is temperature measured with a CTD? CTD is lowered over a stationary boat. It records the data as it come back up. It can tell you more than temperature.
What controls temperature on the surface? Latitude and solar heating. Because the earth is round, the equator gets more heat and is warmer.
What controls salinity in the open ocean? 1. Precipitation in the form of rain and snow 2. Any kind of evaporations.
What controls salinity near the coast? Proximity to rivers.. how much fresh water is being added in.
What is thermo-haline circulation? Vertical circulation caused by changes in density resulting from changes in temperature and salinity.
What is a pycnocline? A water layer with a large change in density with water depth.
What is a thermocline? A water layer with a large change in temperature with water depth.
What is a halocline? A water layer with a large change in salinity with depth.
Why would a pycnocline graph look the same as a thermocline graph? Because temperature controls density.
What is an isothermal condition? Where there is no temperature change with top or bottom layers.
What is upwelling and why does it matter? The upward movement of water. Important because it brings up nitrogen and phosphate and delivers nutrients to the surface.
What is downwelling and why does it matter? The downward movement of water. Important because we wouldn't have life on the sea floor without it. It brings down oxygen and photosynthetic oxygen. No photosynthesis occurs below 100 meters.
What causes wind driven circulation? The global heat imbalance, surface winds, and surface ocean currents.
What depths does wind driven currents affect and at what speed? 0-150 meters. Speed is rapid and is measured in miles or kilometers per hour.
What depths does thermohaline circulation affect and a what speed. Affects all depths of the ocean. Speed is slow, only a few meters per day.
What does wind driven circulation distribute? 1. Heat 2. Salts and chemical nutrients 3. Plankton
What are the two types of plankton Holoplankton and meroplankton
What are holoplankton? Organisms living their entire life cycle in the floating state. These include copepods, foraminifera, coccoliths, diatoms, radiolarians, etc.
What are meroplankton? Floating developmental stages of an organisms that as adults are not floating. This includes larval clams, larval coral, and isopods.
What is the global heat imbalance? The earth's surface receives more solar heating at the equator than the poles because of the curve of the earth's surface. They are direct at the equator and diffused at the poles.
How do winds work on a non-rotating earth? There is one circulation cell in the northern and southern hemisphere. It rises at the equator and sinks at the poles.
How do winds work on a rotating earth? It creates 3 circulation cells in each of the hemispheres. Down from 30 degrees, up from 30 degrees to 60 degrees, and down from 90 degrees. Winds drift to the right because of the rotation of the earth.
What is the coriolis effect? The apparent deflection of bodies in motion when not in contact with the earth. It results from differences in the earth's rotational speed at different latitudes. It happens because the earth is a sphere.
What are the speeds at 0, 30, and 60 degrees? 0=1700 km/hour 30=1400 km/hour 60=850 km/hour
What are vectors? Arrows on paper that show bodies in motion.
What is a head to tail vector addition? Shows bodies in motion and how coriolis effect works.
Why does the coriolis effect move everything to the right? Because the earth is spinning the same way, the hemispheres do not matter.
What is the Ekman Spiral? A model that shows relation between wind direction and resulting water direction.
What are three characteristics of the Ekman Spiral? 1. Objects that move slower are more deflecting than objects that move faster. 2. The deeper you go, the less current you get from the surface. 3. Generally, it only affects a depth up to 150 meters.
What angle does the surface current move away from the wind direction? 45 degrees away
What direction does the Ekman transport move away from the wind direction? 90 degrees to the left if it's in the southern hemisphere and 90 degrees to the right if it's in the northern hemisphere.
What direction does the water move away from the wind direction? 180 degrees at the bottom, or at 150 meters.
What is the importance of the Ekman spiral? 1. It creates surface currents, deflecting water to the left or right, depending on the hemisphere. 2. Coastal upwelling or downwelling. Important to plankton, downwelling creates nutrient starved waters, upwelling creates nutrient rich waters.
What is a gyre? A large scale horizontal circulation cells. They are "as large as the ocean is wide."
Where are the 5 major gyres? There are two in the northern hemisphere and three in the southern hemisphere.
Why do gyres result in mounds 1 or 2 meters higher than regular sea level? It is due to the Ekman spiral and has resulted in garbage accumulation in the central pacific gyre and atlantic gyre.
What is the Sargaso Sea? It is the rotational center of the North Atlantic Gyre. It is named after the sargasm seaweed that accumulates there and leads a planktonic lifestyle.
What is western intensification? The intensification of gyres in the west. Currents flow faster in the west than the east because of coriolis effect; they have to work harder in the higher latitudes which results from the differences in rotational speed.
What is the gulf stream? It was called "a river in the sea" by Benjamin Franklin and was discovered in 1785.
What are the three characteristics that make the gulf stream like a river? 1. It has well defined lateral boundaries. 2. It meanders. 3. Eddies, or circulating pools, are associated with the gulf stream, and are isolated as a result of meandering.
Created by: kbmagee