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FBSF Chapter 8

FBSF Chapter 8 The Integumentary System

The integumentary system is made up of 1. Skin 2. Hair 3. Nails 4. Sebaceous glands(sebum-oil) 5. Cerumenous glands(cerumen-earwax) 6. Sudoriferous glands(sweat)
The skin: 1.Is flexible 2.Is waterproof 3.Protects the body from UltraViolet (UV)light 4.Protects the body from many chemicals & microbes 5.Regulates body temperature(evaporation)
The outermost layer of skin is called the epidermis (epi-above//dermi-skin)
The epidermis is composed of epithelial cells
Epithelia cells reproduce by mitosis(30,000/day)(cells duplicate themselves)
Newer epithelial cells push upward where they slowly necrose(die) this process is called keratinization (pushed from the bottom to top)
These keratinized cells are constantly being sloughed (400 lb of house dust by age 45)
Skin sloughing (shedding) helps rid the body of pathogens(disease producers)
The second layer of the skin is called the dermis AKA corium
The dermis AKA (corium) consists of connective tissue (collagenous & elastin fibers)
The function of collagen is to bind skin cells together
Embedded in the dermis(corium) are 1. Blood vessels 2. Nerves 3. Lymph vessels 4. Hair follicles 5. Sebaceous glands(sebum-oil) 6. Sudoriferous glands(2-4 million sweat glands/cool body down)
Sweat is released through ossa(plural)(os/opening) called sudoriferous pores
The last layer of the skin is called the subcutaneous (subQ or subcu) AKA hypodermis
The subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) consists mainly of adipose tissue(fat)
The subcutaneous tissue(hypodermis) attaches the dermis(corium) to the underlying muscles
The fibrous connective tissue of the body is called fascia
When skin is subjected to an excessive amount of abrasion or friction, a thickened area develops called a callus(calluses)
Skin pigmentation(color) is genetically determined by the amount of melanin produced
A genetic mutation causing an absence of melanin production is called albinism
Dilation of the blood vessels in the dermis(corium) causes erythroderma AKA erythema AKA rubeosis
Causes of erythema include 1.Pyrexia(fever) 2.HyperTensioN ((HTN) 3.Inflammation 4.Blushing
A bluish discoloration of the skin caused by hypoxia or hypothermia(deficient Oxygen/O2 or body heat) is called cyanosis(cyanotic)
Excessive hemolysis(break-up) of erythrocytes or hyperbilirubinemia causes a yellowish orangish discoloration to the skin and/or sclerae(white part of each eye) called xanthoderma or jaundice or icterus (kernicterus/newborn-neonate)
Hair is a characteristic of all mammals
On humans, hair can be found on the entire body except for the 1.Palms 2.Soles 3.Glans penis
Each hair is composed of 1. A shaft - visible portion of the hair 2. A root - is found in the epidermal tube 3. Follicle - is where mitosis occurs (hair grows/cell duplication)
Attached to each hair follicle is an arrector pili muscle which causes the hair shaft to "stand on it end" causing a "goose flesh" appearance when we get scared or cold
Genetics will control 1.Hair color 2.Hair texture 3.Hair loss(alopecia)
The visible part of a nail is called a nail body
The part of a nail that grows is called a nail bed
The base of a nail is covered by tissue called a cuticle AKA eponychium
Onychocryptosis is an abnormal condition of an ingrown (hidden) nail
Onychomycosis is an abnormal condition of a nail(s) caused by a fungus
Paronychia is a condition of inflammation adjacent to a nail
Cicatrix (cicatrices) scar(s)
keloid an exaggerated or hypertrophied scar
keloids are associated with surgery & 3rd degree burns
Ecchymosis(ecchymotic) black & blue mark caused by bleeding under the skin AKA hematoma or contusion or bruise
edema(edematous) tissue swelling caused by an accumulation of fluid
ulcer an erosion (wearing away) of the skin or mucous membrane
Decubitus ulcer is AKA bedsore or pressure sore(ulcer)
pitting edema fluid accumulation where indentations occur after light palpation(touch)
eschar(esharotic) nectrotic tissue caused by a burn
macule(macular) flat usually erythematous skin lesion
Decubitis ulcers commonly occur on bony prominences (pressure points) such as 1.coccyx(tailbone) 2.Calcanei(heel bones) 3.Olecranon(Holy crayons)(elbows) 4.Scapulae(shoulder bone) 5.Occipital bone(posterior base of the cranium/skull) 6.Pelvis(ilia/hip or ischia/sit on)
papule(papular) a raised skin lesion <1cm..less than
nodule(nodular) a raised skin lesion >1cm..greater than
nevus(nevil) mole(s) or birthmark(s)
petechia(e) pinpoint skin hemorrhage(s)
purpura a combination of ecchymosis/back & blue marks and petechiae/pinpoint skin hemorrhage
pustule(pustular) a papule filled with pus <1cm..less than
abscess(abcesses) a collection of pus >1cm..greater than
verruca(e) warts
pallor paleness
vesicle a raised lesion filled with a clear liquid AKA a blister or bulla(>1cm=greater than) or bleb(<1cm=Less than)
abrasion mechanical superficial damage to the skin AKA scrape
excoriation chemical superficial damage to the skin such as "diaper rash"
cellulitis(dermatitis) inflammation of skin cells
urticaria hives AKA wheals
Urticaria is an indication of an allergic reaction
cyst a thickening or lump
furuncle an infection of a hair follicle and adjacent tissue AKA a boil
carbuncle(car load) a cluster of furuncles
gangrene(ganrenous) putrefaction(rot) caused by tissue necrosis and microbial proliferation
laceration tissue that is cut, torn or ripped
avulsion tearing any part of the body away from the whole
xeroderma dry skin
ichthyosis dry scaly skin
crustation(s) scab(s)
vitiligo(Michael Jackson) localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by mild-white patches
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed