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scioly- digestive

digestive system cards for science olympiad!

a muscular tube that connects and carries food from the mouth to the stomach esophagus
glands that produce and secrete saliva which contains digestive enzymes salivary glands
large tubular organ that absorbs water, salts, and stores waste matter large intestine
long tubular organ where most of chemical digestion and absorption takes place small intestine
bony structures that grind and crush food mechanically into smaller bits teeth
organ that senses taste of food and helps push it to the back of the mouth tongue
sac-like muscular organ that secretes gastric acids and churns food into a pulp stomach
entrance of the digestive system where mechanical and chemical digestion begins mouth
middle section of the small intestine where bulk of nutrients are absorbed jejunum
gland that secretes most of the digestive enzymes and a few important hormones pancreas
major section of large intestine that absorbs water, salts, and stores waste matter colon
largest organ in the body that produces bile and performs over 500 functions liver
a small organ that stores bile produced in the liver and helps digestion gallbladder
first section of the small intestine where chemical digestion occurs duodenum
opening at the end of the digestive tract through which feces are expelled anus
final section of the large intestine that acts as temporary storage for feces rectum
based on solubility, the eight B vitamins, and vitamin C are classified as water-soluble vitamins
the eight B vitamins essential for metabolism and growth are together referred to as vitamin B complex
an antioxidant vitamin found in vegetable oils and nuts; protects red blood cells and cell membranes vitamin E (Tocopherol)
essential for vision, immunity and growth; deficiency causes night blindness; found in dark green/orange vegetables vitamin A (retinol)
helps calcium absorption; deficiency causes bone deformities; produced in the skin by exposure to sunlight vitamin D (calciferol)
essential for normal blood clotting; helps bone growth; found in green leafy vegetables vitamin K (phylloquinone)
found in citrus fruits, peppers; antioxidant and important for collagen production; deficiency causes scurvy vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
based on solubility, vitamins A, D, E, and K are classified as fat-soluble vitamins
nutrients that protect cells from the damage of oxidation caused by free radicals (reactive ions) antioxidants
macronutrients made up of amino acids that help build, maintain, and repair body tissues proteins
vital nutrient that makes up 2/3 of our body and is involved in its every function water
micronutrients required for regulating growth and normal metabolic functioning of the body vitamins
indigestible plant matter that helps push food, aids digestion, and lowers risk of many diseases dietary fiber
nutrients made up of fatty acids that store energy in a concentrated form fats
macronutrients made of sugars and starches that are a mains source of energy for the human body carbohydrates
chemical elements (eg. Ca, Fe, Mg) that are required in small amounts by the body dietary minerals
eggs, dairy products, and meats are classified as good sources of protein
a food allergy is an adverse immune response to a food protein
deficiency of what type of nutrient causes weakness, poor growth, and metabolic problems vitamins
packaged baked foods are most likely to contain _________ that raise cholesterol levels trans fat
a standardized ratio of weight to heights that is often used as an indicator of health body mass index (BMI)
name that plant-based food that can help to reduce blood cholesterol levels soluble fiber
processed foods are usually high in ______ which contributes to high blood pressure sodium
what group is our body's best source of energy carbohydrates
required for protein, bone, and fat formation; for production and use of insulation in the body magnesium
essential for transportation cellular energy (as ATP) forming cell membranes, DNA and bone tissue phosphorus
helps form bones and teeth, and it is required for muscle contraction and blood clotting calcium
required for production of thyroid hormones; deficiency causes goiter Iodine
electrolyte that regulates heart function, blood pressure, PH levels, and nerve & muscle activity potassium
required for production of hemoglobin; deficiency causes anemia and easy fatigue Iron
its part of many enzymes that repair wounds; maintains fertility, growth, and boosts immunity zinc
electrolyte that maintains the body's blood volume, water balance, and keeps nerves functioning sodium
process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrients that can be absorbed digestive
process by which fat globules are broken into smaller droplets of bile by salts emalisfaction
process of eating (taking food into the body through the mouth) ingestion
production and release of useful substances (enzymes, hormones, etc.) by a gland secretion
rhythmic muscular contractions that moves food the digestive tract peristalsis
process of eliminating waste products of metabolism (urine, CO2, etc.) excretion
movement of nutrient molecules through the wall of digestive system absorption
process of elimination of indigestible food remains from the digestive system egestion
how long does the food stay in the small intestine in humans 5 hours
how many different species of bacteria are present in the human colon around 400
how many functions does the liver perform in the human body over 500
what is the average length of the small intestine in humans 22 feet
how much hydrochloric acid does a human stomach produce everyday 2 liters
how much saliva does the human mouth produce everyday 1.7 liters
how long does food stay in the human stomach on average 3 to 4 hours
what are the nutrients that are absorbed in the esophagus none
a type of organism that is made up of a single cell unicellular
tiny structures that perform specific functions within a cell organelles
a type of organism that is made up of many cells multicellular
basic unit of structure, function, and organization in all living organisms a cell
a type of cell with a nucleus and numerous organelles, each inclosed in its own membrane eukaryote cells
type of cell that lacks a cell nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelles prokaryote cells
a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit that performs a specialized function of the body organs
a group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function tissues
generally rectangular shape; is a feature of _____ cells plant
round or irregular shape; is a feature of ______ cells animal
plant cells have... large central vacuole, cell wall, and chloroplasts
animal cells have... cilia, lysosomes, and usually centrioles
Created by: Alayna-Nichole