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Ch8 Digestive System

abdominal computed tomography (CT) a radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structure within the abdomen
abdominal ultrasound a noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves
absorption the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body
acid reducers decrease the amount of acid produced by the stomach
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) caused by the abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth
aerophagia the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach
amebic dysentery an intestinal disorder caused by a parasite
anabolism the building up of body cells and substances from nutrients
anastomosis a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures
anorexia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance
antiemetic a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting
aphthous ulcers grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers
ascites an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
bariatrics the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases
borborygmus the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
botulism food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum
bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting
cachexia a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS
cheilosis a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth
cholangiography a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium
cholangitis an acute infection of the bile duct
cholecystectomy the surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones
choledocholithotomy an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones
cholelithiasis the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
cholera severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera
cirrhosis a progressive degenerative disease of the liver
colonoscopy the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum
Crohn's disease a chronic autoimmune disorder that is most often found in the ileum and in the colon
diverticulitis the inflammation of one or more diverticula in the colon
diverticulosis the presence of a number of diverticula in the colon
dyspepsia pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
emesis the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth; also known as vomiting
enteritis an inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens
eructation the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach
esophageal varices enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
esophagogastroduodenoscopy an endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum
gastroduodenostomy the removal of the pylorus of the stomach and the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum
gastroesophageal reflux disease the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus
gastrostomy tube a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach
hematemesis vomiting blood
hemoccult test a lab test for hidden blood in the stools
hepatitis an inflammation of the liver
herpes labialis blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters
hiatal hernia a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm
hyperemesis extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration
ileus the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine
inguinal hernia the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin
jaundice a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the eyes
melena the passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools
morbid obesity the condition of weighing two to three times, or more, than the ideal weight; also known as clinically severe obesity
nasogastric intubation the placementof a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach
obesity an excessive accumulation of fat in the body
periodontium consists of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth
peristalsis a series of wave-like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction
proctopexy the surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ
regurgitation the return of swallowed food into the mouth
salmonellosis an infectious disease of the intestines that is transmitted by food contaminated with feces
sigmoidoscopy the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon
stomatorrhagia bleeding from any part of the mouth
trismus any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer
ulcerative colitis a chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation
volvulus the twisting of the intestine on itself that causes an obstruction
xerostomia the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands; also known as dry mouth
Created by: jtrejos