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RFC 1 ch 1

Summary of Chapter 1

The goal of all scientific endeavors Describe, explain, predict, and/or control phenomena
Compared to other sources of knowledge, such as experience, authority, inductive reasoning, and deductive reasoning, application of Scientific method is most efficient and reliable
Scientific method Orderly process that entails recognition and definition of a problem, formulation of a hypotheses, collection, & analysis of data, & statement of conclusions regarding confirmation or disconfirmation of hypotheses
Four main factors put limitations on the use of a scientific and disciplined inquiry approach: Inability to answer some types of questions, inability to capture the full richness of the research site, and the complexity of the participants, limitations or measuring instruments, & the need to address participants' needs in ethical & responsible way
Research Formal, systematic application of the scientific method to the study of problems
Educational research formal systematic application of the scientific method to the study of educational problems
Major difference between educational research and some other types of scientific research Nature of the phenomena studied.
It can be quite difficult to explain, predict, and control situations Involving human beings, most complex of all organisms
Research process usually comprises of 4 general steps a. selection & definition of a problem b. execution of research procedures c. analysis of data d. drawing & stating conclusions
Quantitative research Collection & analysis of numerical data to explain, predict, and/or control phenomena of interest
Key features of quantitative research a. hypotheses that predict the results of the research before the study begins b. control of contextual factors that may influence the study
Key features of quantitative research c. collection of data from sufficient samples of participants d. use of numerical, statistical approaches to analyze the data collected
Quantitative approach Assumes the world is relatively stable, uniform, & coherent
Qualitative researcher Collection, analysis, & interpretation of comprehensive narrative & visual (nonnumeric) data to gain insights into particular phenomenon of interest
Key factors of qualitative research a. defining the problem, but not necessarily at the start of the study b. studying contextual factors in the participants natural settings
Key factors of qualitative research c. collecting data from a small number of purposely selected participants d. using nonumeric, interpretive approaches to provide narrative descriptions of the participants and their contexts
Important belief that underlies qualitative research the world is not a stable, coherent, nor uniform, & therefore, there are many truths
Research method comprises the overall strategy followed in collecting and analyzing data
Quantitative research approaches are intended to describe current conditions, investigate relations, & study cause-effect phenomena
Survey research involves collecting numerical data to answer questions about the current status of the subject of study
Correlational research examine the relation between two or more variables
Variable placeholder, such as age, IQ, or height that can take on different values
In correlational research the degree of relation is measured by a correlation coefficient
If two variables are highly related one is not necessarily the cause of the other
Causal-comparative research seeks to investigate differences between two or more different programs, ethos, or groups
The activity thought to make a difference (e.g., the program, method, or group) is called the grouping variable
The effect is called the dependent variable
In most causal-comparative research studies, the researcher does not have control over the grouping variable because it already has occurred or cannot be manipulated
Causal-comparative research useful in those circumstances when it is impossible or unethical to manipulate an independent variable
True experimental research investigates causal relations among variables
The experimental researcher controls the selection of participants by choosing them from a single pool and assigning them at random to different causal treatment
Because participants are randomly selected and assigned to different treatments experimental research permits researchers to make true cause-effect statements
Single-subject experimental designs type of experimental research that can be applied when the sample is one individual or group
Single-subject experimental designs often used to study the behavior change an individual or group exhibits as a result of some intervention or treatment.
Qualitative approaches include narrative research, ethnographic research, and case study research
The focus of narrative, ethnographic, and case study research is on deep description of aspects of people's everyday perspectives and context
Narrative research study of how individuals experience the world.
The narrative researcher typically focuses on a single person & gathers data through the collection of stories
Ethnographic research the study of the cultural patterns and perspectives of participants in their natural setting
Ethnography focuses on a particular site or sites that provide the researcher with a context in which to study both the setting & the participants who inhabit it.
Case study research is a qualitative research approach to conducting research on a unit of study or bounded system (e.g., classroom, school).
Qualitative research generally involves six steps 1. identifying a research topic 2. reviewing the literature 3. selecting participants 4. collecting data 5. analyzing & interpreting data 6. reporting & evaluating the research
Qualitative data gathered directly from participant
Qualitative researchers spend a great deal of time with participants as they consider alternative explanations for the behavior they see.
Qualitative research reports include detailed descriptions that include the voices of the participants as well as the biases & perspective of the researcher,
Type of research method needed for a given study depends on the way the problem is defined
Basic research conducted to develop or refine theory, not solve immediate practical problems
Applied research conducted to find solutions to current practical problems
Purpose of evaluation research inform decision making about educational programs and practices
Major purpose of research & development (R & D) to develop effective products for use in schools.
Purpose of action research provide teachers with a method for solving everyday problems in their own settings
Ethical considerations play a role in all research studies
All researchers must be aware of and attend to ethical considerations in their research
Two overriding rules of ethics 1. participants should not be harmed in any way-physically, mentally, or socially 2. Researchers must obtain the participants' informed consent.
Professional organizations develop ethical principles for their members, & the federal government has enacted laws to protect research participants from harm & invasion of privacy.
Definite source of ethical guidelines for researchers Ethical Principles of Psychologists & Code of Conduct prepared for and published by the American Psychological Association (APA)
Led to the creation of standard set of federal guidelines for the protection of human research participants National Research Act of 1974
Hospitals, colleges, & universities require that proposed research activities involving human participants be reviewed & approved by an Institutional review Board (IRB) prior to the execution of the research, to ensure protection of the participants.
Researchers obtain informed consent by making sure that research participants enter the research of their free will & with understanding of the nature of the study & any possible dangers that may arise as a result of participation
Study participants are assured of confidentiality; researchers promise not to disclose participants' identities or information that could lead to discovery of those identities.
Confidentiality differs from anonymity the identities of anonymous participants are hidden from the researcher as well.
Protects the privacy of the educational records of students. Data that identify participants by name may not be made available to the researcher unless written permission is granted by the participants. Family Educational Rights and Privacy act of 1974, referred to as the Buckley Amendment
Studies involving deception of participants are sometimes unavoidable but should be examined critically for unethical practices
Qualitative researchers because of their closeness to participants, must pay special attention to ethical issues & view informed consent as a process that evolves & changes throughout the study
Qualitative researchers may witness dangerous or illegal behavior & may have to make ethical decisions on the spot.
Created by: Xyrarose