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GCSE Fibres/Fabrics

origin and structure of fibres/fabrics

What is a staple fibre? Fibres which are a few centimetres long (most natural fibres are staple apart from silk)
What is a filament fibre? Fibres which are several kilometres long, usually synthetic or regenerated fibres. Silk is the only natural filament fibre.
What are monomers? Monomers make up fibres. If a fibre is like a bead necklace, monomers are the individual beads.
What are polymers? Polymers are a string of monomers which make up fibre. If a fibre is like a bead necklace, the polymer is the necklace itself and the monomers are the individual beads.
What kind of fibre is cotton? Natural fibre as it comes from a cotton plant. The fibres are formed around the seeds inside the seed boll.
What kind of fibre is linen? Natural fibre as it comes from a flax plant. They come from inside the stem of the flax plant.
What kind of fibre is wool? Natural fibre as it comes from sheep. They have a natural crimp that makes them wavy.
What kind of fibre is silk? Natural fibre as it comes from the cocoon of the silk worm. The fibres are made by the worm secreting sticky liquid from 2 holes at the back of its head called spinnerets. The liquid makes the cocoon.
What are the polymers in cotton and linen made from? Cellulose as they are from plants.
What are the polymers in wool and silk made from? Proteins as they come from animals.
What are regenerated fabrics made from? Cellulose of spruce trees (wood pulp) and chemicals.
Name 4 regenerated fibres. Viscose, acetate, triacetate, lyocell.
Which regenerated fibre is fully biodegradable? Viscose
Nylon and polyester are 2 examples of which fibre type? Synthetic fibres.
What is synthetic fibre made from? Synthetic fibres are made entirely from chemicals.
Name 5 synthetic fabrics. Polyester, polyamide, acrylic, elastane and aramid.
Name the common manufacturers' trade names for viscose. Rayon, Fibro, Evlan or Sarille.
Name the common manufacturer trade name for acetate. Dicel
Name the common manufacturer trade name for triacetate. Tricel
Name the common manufacturer trade name for lyocell. Tencel
Name the common manufacturers' trade names for polyamide. Nylon, Antron, Cordura or Tactel
Name the common manufacturers' trade names for polyester. Terelene, Crimplene, Trevira, Dacron
Name the common manufacturers' trade names for acrylic. Courtelle, Draylon, Dolan, Orlon, Teklan
Name the common manufacturers' trade names for elastane. Lycra, Spandex
Name the common manufacturers' trade names for aramid. Kevlar, Nomex
What does thermoplastic mean? Fibres which can be can be set into shape using heat.
The strength of fibres is often referred to as...? Tenacity of a fibre.
Fibres which are 60 times finer than human hair are known as...? Microfibres
What is Tactel an example of? Polyamide microfibres
What is Trevira Finesse and example of? Polyester microfibres
What is the process of turning staple fibres into yarns known as? Spinning
What are the two common types of twisted yarns called? s-twist and z-twist due to the shapes the yarns make.
After natural fibres are harvested and cleaned they are untangled by...? combing them. The combed web is known as a sliver.
What is a roving? A roving is a narrow sliver of fibre, which is gently pulled and twisted to make a single yarn.
What does carding mean? This is when the fibres are combed more than once resulting in smoother yarns.
What are the 3 reasons for blending fibres? To combine performance properties - e.g. polyester/cotton To make the yarns more economical - e.g. cotton/viscose To create decorative or colour effects - e.g. multicolour yarns
What are spun staple or filament yarns called? Single yarns. They can be used as they are or twisted together to make stronger yarns.
What are single yarns called when they are twisted together to make stronger and thicker yarns? Cabled yarns. The process of twisting single yarns together is known as plying.
What is the selvedge of a fabric? The selvedge is at the edge of a fabric and is made when the weft yarn wraps around the warp yarn.
Which yarn runs vertically or parallel to the selvedge? the warp
Which yarn runs horizontally or across the fabric? the weft
What is the diagonal of a fabric called? The bias. If a fabric is pulled across the bias it will have more stretch than if pulled across the weft or warp.
What will woven fabrics do when cut? Fray.
Which yarn is usually the strongest in woven fabrics? The warp yarns are usually stronger than weft yarns.
Are knitted fibres stretcher than woven fibres? Yes. The loops in the structure of knits allow the fabrics to stretch.
What are the two main types of knitting called? Warp knitting and weft knitting.
Are knitted fabrics generally warmer than woven fabrics? Yes. The loops allow for air pockets which mean the fabrics keep the skin warmer.
What type of fabric is Polartec? Fleece fabric, made by laying additional yarns in the structure of knitted fabrics.
Fibres can be turned into fabrics without weaving or knitting. These fabrics are called...? Non-woven fabrics
What is tangling wool fibres into a web using heat, pressure and moisture is known as? Felting
Fibres can be bonded together using....? Fabric adhesives, solvents which soften the fibres so that they stick together or adding heat to melt fibres (thermoplastic fibres only)
What are the properties of non-woven fabrics? They are cheap to make as fibres are not turned into yarns There is no grain line so they do not fray They are stiff and don't drape well They are distorted by stretching They are good insulators as there are lots of spaces for air to get trap
What is Vilene fabric used for? Interlining or interfacings to make sections in garments more stable.
How is fusible Vilene applied? It has an adhesive on one side so will stick to other fabrics when it is steam pressed.
What is neoprene commonly used for? Wetsuits or sportswear because it is soft and warm. It can also be recycled.
How is neoprene made? Synthetic rubber is mixed with synthetic knitted fabric or other stretch fabric to make neoprene.