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A&P1 muscles DelTech

Review for test on muscles in A&P1 at DelTech Owens

What do you call the part of a muscle that attaches to a bone that is stable and has little to no movement? Origin
What do you call the part of a muscle that attaches to a bone that moves when the muscle contracts? Insertion
What do you call the fat part of a muscle between the origin and insertion points? Belly
The muscle producing the most force during a movement is called the __ __. prime mover
The muscle that helps the prime mover muscle is called the __. synergist
The muscle that would oppose a movement if it contacts is called the __. antagonist
A muscle that holds a bone in place (instead of moving it) is called a __. fixator
Neurons and __ have the only excitable cells in the body? muscles
Muscles are the only tissues in the body that can __ or exert force when stimulated. contract
Approximately how many muscles are in the human body? 600
Name the 3 kinds of muscle. skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Another term for a muscle cell is a muscle __. fiber
How many functions do muscles serve? Six
What are the 6 functions of muscles in the body? Movement, blood flow, stability, communication, control of body openings, heat
Which kind of muscle is under voluntary control, has long cells that form bands or striations, and that contract rapidly while tiring easily? skeletal or striated
Which kind of muscle is involuntary, with fewer striations than skeletal muscle, with steady contraction speed that can speed up when needed? cardiac
Which kind of muscle can be found in the digestive tract, is involuntary, does not require nervous stimulation, has a slow contraction speed, does not tire easily, and is nonstriated? smooth
Name the 5 characteristics of muscle. (Every cat can eat eggs) excitability, conductivity, contractility, extensibility, elasticity
The ability of muscles to receive and respond to stimulus is called? excitability
The ability of muscles to conduct an action potential (nerve impulse) is called? conductivity
The ability of muscles to shorten or contract is called? contractility
The ability of muscles to stretch is called? extensibility
The connective tissue that surrounds every muscle fiber is called? endomysium
A collection of bundles of muscle fibers is called? fascicle
What surrounds each muscle fascicle? perimysium
What surrounds the entire muscle? epimysium
A broad sheath-like connective tissue that connects muscle to muscle? aponeurosis
The aponeurosis in the palm of the hand is called? palmar aponeurosis
Muscles are __ because muscles need a lot of ATP. multinucleated
The plasma membrane of muscle cells is called? sarcolemma
What carries electrical current and is located at junctions of the a and I bands? transverse tubules
The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber is called? sarcoplasm
The sarcoplasm contains what 2 things needed by muscle? glycogen, myoglobin
The endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle fiber is called? sarcoplasmic reticulum
The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a reservoir for __ ions needed to make the muscle contract. calcium
The contractile elements of muscles are called? myofibrils
Myofibrils consist of what? myofilaments
Myofilaments contain what 4 proteins? actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin
__ is a thin protein that causes muscles to contract. actin
__ is a thick protein that causes muscles to contract. myosin
__ and __ are regulatory proteins in muscles that stop muscles from contracting. troponin and tropopmyosin
The smallest unit of muscle is called? sarcomere
The borders of a sarcomere are called? Z-bands
The "rowing team" of the sarcomere is called? myosin
The area where myosin can be found is called the __ band. A-band
Electrical stimulus of a muscle is called an __ __. action potential
Where do muscles get their energy from? ATP
Stored __ is ready energy. ATP
What other sources of energy can be converted to ATP? glucose and creatine phosphate
Glucose is absorbed through the __ __. It is slow energy. digestive tract
One way of generating ATP is through aerobic respiration. This creates __ ATP, and 2 are needed to start the cycle. thirty-eight
One way of generating ATP is through anaerobic respiration. This creates __ ATP, and 2 are used to start the cycle. four
The Kreb's cycle is also called the __ __ cycle. citric acid
Aerobic respiration results in ATP, plus __ __ and water. carbon dioxide
Aerobic respiration occurs in the cell __. mitochondria
When glucose is gone, we use __. glycogen
Glycogen is stored in the __ and some is stored in muscle. liver
__ respiration occurs when muscles are contracting for a long time and oxygen is deficient. Anaroebic
Glucose is broken down into ATP and __ acid. lactic
Lactic acid makes muscles __. tired
Which produces ATP faster: aerobic respiration or anaroebic respiration? anaroebic
Creatine phosphate is stored in __ __. muscle tissue
Creatine phosphate (CP) will bind to __ and make a new ATP. ADP
What do you experience when glycogen stores in muscles are used up and ATP production fails? physiological fatigue
When oxygen stores need to be replenished in muscles, we experience __ debt. oxygen
When stimulated by a motor neuron, muscle fiber will contract to its greatest extent or not at all. What is this principle called? All of none principle
A single motor neuron, that tells muscle fibers to contract, is also called a __ __. motor unit
The number of muscle fibers that respond to a motor unit can range from __ to several hundred. four
The average number of muscle fibers that respond to a motor unit is __. one-hundred and fifty
The __ number of muscle fibers, the finer the control of the movement. fewer
A __ __ is a response of a muscle to a stimulus. muscle twitch
What is the first phase of a muscle twitch? latent period
What is the 2nd phase of a muscle twitch? stimulus
What is the 3rd phase of a muscle twitch? contraction
What is the 4th phase of a muscle twitch? relaxation
A long sustained maximum contraction of a muscle is called __. tetanus
A muscle contraction without a change in the shape of the muscle is called? isometric
A muscle contraction with a change in the shape of the muscle is called? isotonic
When a muscle breaks down due to disuse, this is called? disuse atrophy
Rigor mortis means __ __ __. stiffness of death
The 1st phase of rigor mortis is called? primary flaccidity
During the 2nd phase of rigor mortis, what parts of the body are affected? eyelids, neck, jaw
A dead body enters the 2nd phase or rigor mortis within __ to __ hours of death. two to six
A dead body reaches peak rigidity within __ hours after death. twelve
Rigor mortis dissipates with __ to __ hours of death. forty-eight to sixty
Created by: IsaacJ