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Hazardous Materials

ABSORPTION The substance is taken into the material (absorbed). Taking in toxic material by the absorption in the skin.
ACGIH American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists
ADSORPTION The substance stays on the material (adheres). Taking in toxic material by contact with the skin.
ACUTE EXPOSURE Short term, one time exposure with immediate response
AIR INVERSION Temperature of the air some distance above the earth's surface is higher than the air temperature of the surface.
AIR REACTIVE MATERIALS Substances that will ignite at normal temperatures when exposed to air
BIOHAZARD Etiological agents. Infectious wastes
BIOMEDICAL HAZARD Infectious medical waste
BLEVE Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion. A container failure with a release of energy, rapidly and violently, accompanied by a release of gas to the atmosphere, followed by ignition (fireball) and propulsion of the container or container pieces.
BOILING POINT That temperature at which a subtance changes from liquid to a gas or vapor state, varying in accordance with altitude and pressure.
CCR California Code of Regulations
CEQA California Environmental Quality Act
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CHRONIC Long Term Exposure
COLD ZONE Where Command Post is located during emergency situation. AKA as the SUPPORT ZONE.
COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID Any liquid having a flash point at or above 100 degrees F
COMMAND POST The location where all the lead agencies meet and determine how to deal effectively with an incident.
COMPRESSED GAS Any material or mixture which when enclosed in a container has an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70 degrees F or exceeding 140 psi at 130 degrees F
CONFINED SPACE An area or space with a difficult or limited entry and exit and that does not have adequate natural ventilation. The area can become devoid of oxygen and can cause suffocation.
CONTROL AGENT Any material that is used to contain or extinguish a hazardous material or its vapors
CORRECTIVE ACTIONS Actions taken by the incident commander to correct the problem at hand in a hazardous materials emergency.
CORROSIVE MATERIAL Any liquid or solid that can destroy human skin tissue, or a liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel.
CRYOGENIC LIQUID Gases which must be cooled to a very low temperature to bring about a change from gas to liquid.
DANGEROUS CARGO MANIFEST A cargo manifest used on ships contains a list of all the hazardous materials onboard, including their location.
DECONTAMINATION A precautionary stage to clean equipment, rinse and dispose of contaminated equipment used in hazardous materials response
DOT Federal Department of Transportation
DOWNWIND Wind direction, wind to your face
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EXCLUSIONARY ZONE HOT ZONE. Area where the incident is occuring. Zone can extend to 1500 feet or more
FLAMMABLE GAS Any gas that will burn.
FLAMMABLE LIQUID Any liquid having a flash point below 100 degrees F
FLAMMABLE MATERIAL The temperature range when a subtance can support combustion
FLAMMABLE RANGE A substance that is capable of being easily ignited and of burning rapidly
FLAMMABLE SOLID Any material (other than an explosive) that can cause fire through friction, retained heat from manufacturing/processing, or that can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create transportation hazard.
FLASHBACK Re-ignition of flammable liquid caused by exposure of its vapors to an ignition source
FLASH POINT The lowest temperature at which a liquid substance gives off flammable vapors sufficient to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. Combustion is not continuous at the flash point.
FUSIBLE PLUGS A safety relief device in the form of a plug of low melting metal. The plugs close the safety relief device channel under normal conditions, and are intended to yield or melt at a set temperature to permit the escape of gas.
GAS A formless fluid which occupies completely the space or an enclosure
HOT ZONE AKA EXCLUSIONARY ZONE. The area or perimeter where the incident is occuring. Circular perimeter can extend to 1500 feet or more from the isolation zone.
IDLH Acrynom for Immediately Dangerous for Life and Health
*INGESTION Swallowing or eating a substance
*ISOLATION ZONE This is the area where the incident is occurring, inside the HOT ZONE
*LC50 Lethal concentration were fifty percent of the tested laboratory animals die
*LD50 Lethal Dose were fifty percent of the tested laboratory animals die
LIQUEFIED GAS A gas that is partially liquid at a temperature of 70 degrees F
*LEL Lower Explosion Level. It is the lowest concentration which can cause a substance to ignite and explode.
*INJECTION Placing a substance inside and under the skin
MG/PER LITER The same value as one part per million PPM
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OXIDIZERS A substance that yields oxygen readily to stimulate the combustion of organic matter and inorganic matter.
*OXIDIZING ABILITY The ability to yield oxygen readily to stimulate combustion
*PACKAGING A broad term used by the Department of Transportation (DOT) to describe shipping containers, and any markings, labels, or placards affixed to them.
*PACKAGE MARKINGS The descriptive name, instructions, cautions, weight, or specification marks required to be placed upon outside containers or hazardous materials.
*PLUME General shape of spill or release
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
PPM Parts Per Million. Can apply to solids, liquids, and gases.
PEL Permissible Exposure Limit. OSHA regulation for an 8 hour/day = 40 hour/week work exposure.
pH The hydronium ion concentration of a solution. Rating is based on a 1 to 14 scale, 7 being neutral (water)
PHL Public Health License
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recover Act
SARA Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
SECONDARY ZONE WARM ZONE, contamination reduction zone. This is where crew members accessing the hot zone are decontaminated and assisted
SPECIFIC GRAVITY The weight of a substance as compared to the weight of an equal volume of water (for solids and liquids) or an equal volume of air (for gases)
STABILIZATION The stage of an incident when the immediate problem or emergency has been controlled, contained or extinguished.
STEL Short term exposure limit
STAGE OF INCIDENT One of five definite and indefiable phases through which an emergency passes from onset to stabilization
*SUBLIMATION The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a gas or vapor state with no liquid state transition, varying in accordance with altitude and pressure
SUBSURFACE INJECTION Discharge of foam or water into a storage tank from an outlet at the tank bottom or below the liquid surface
SUPPORT ZONE A definition of the incident perimeter zones. The cold zone is also known as the COLD ZONE. This is the zone where the crew members wear their gear, decontaminate equipment.
TANK CAR Tank vehicle on rails
TLV Threshold Limit Value. A NIOSH published value. Tests by the ACGIH results in the values published by NIOSH.
TOXICITY The ability of a substance to cause injury to biologic tissue
TSD Treatment, Storage, and Disposal
TSDF Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility
TWA Time weighted average. A ceiling exposure limit value. The exposure amount and the duration of the exposure is calculated for this value. TWA is used when Permissible Exposure Limits or an 8 hour exposure is not applicable.
*UEL Upper Explosion Level. It is the highest concentration which can cause a substance to ignite and explode.
UPWIND Wind direction, wind to your back
VAPOR DENSITY A concentration rating for a substance against air which has a level of equal 1.
VISCOSITY The flow resistance characteristics of a liquid
WARM ZONE AKA Secondary Zone
WATER SOLUBILITY The factor which indicates how much a substance can interact or "mix" with water.
** HAZARDOUS WASTES No more than 220 lbs per month or 27 gallons
EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS WASTES No more than 2.2 lbs per month per 2.5 gallons
LIQUID TRANSPORT No more than 5 gallons per month or 50 lbs per day
Created by: adlarios