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Buyer Behavior Exam2

memory influences knowledge (prior knowledge) attitudes (pre-existing beliefs) choice (need to remember) advertising effectiveness
day after recall if you were watching a program they may call you the next day asking about ads (this shows marketers if it was an effective ad)
starch scores print ads ask questions about what they remember about the ad
inputs in order to remember you must be exposed
sensory memory sensory experiences stored temporarily in memory info must be taken in by eyes for visuals (time it takes to brain)
short-term memory (working memory) the portion of memory where incoming info in encoded or interpreted in light of existing knowledge
long-term memory the part of memory where info is placed for later use; permanently stored knowledge; only aware of 3-7 pieces
autobiographical memory (L/T) info about ourselves and our past; primarily sensory
semantic memory (L/T) general knowledge about an entity detached from specific episodes
importance of encoding you may later act on this long term memory; moves from short term to long term
recirculation method to facilitate encoding marketer may understand that they need to repeat info and pound it into head; head on, obnoxious because they just repeat message
rehearsal method to facilitate encoding consumer is the active party if you repeat something over and over it will eventually get to long term memory; ex. jingles or slogans
chunking method to facilitate encoding grouping info together to remember better; ex. schemas, 3-4, phone numbers are in 3 chunks)
elaboration method to facilitate encoding converting it into something that is meaningful to you; ex. increase attention central route, relate info to prior knowledge and past experiences
trace strength the extent to which an association or link is strongly or weakly linked to a concept in memory
associative network model linked together in memory short link, stronger association longer link, weak association node can become activated
prime activation of a node to memory often without conscious awareness
decay the weakening of memory nodes or links over time
interference causes us to confuse which features go with which brand or concept due to semantic networks being too closely aligned
primacy/recency tendency to show greater memory for info that comes first or last in a sequence
explicit memory memory for some prior episode achieved by active attempts to remember retrieval process: purposeful search measured by: ability to recall/recognize awareness: at encoding and retrieval (remember ad so you want to go there)
implicit memory memory for things without any conscious attempt at remembering them retrieval process: spontaneous measured by: change in task performance awareness: at encoding, not retrieval (want to go there but don't remember its from ad)
problem recognition perceived difference between an actual and an ideal state
perceived actual state how we perceive the situation or current state of affairs
how to create problems for consumers create new ideal state - show people things can be better than they thought; ex. smart phones change perceptions of actual state - actual reality is worse than they perceived; ex. perceive home is safe until see commercial for Radon
determinants of brand recall (internal search) prototypicality, brand familiarity, brand preference, retrieval cues
determinants of attribute recall goals, diagnosticity of attributes (info that helps us discriminate among objects)
confirmation bias (bias in internal search) tendency to recall info that reinforces or confirms our overall beliefs rather than contradicting them, making our decision more positive than it should be
inhibition (bias in internal search) the recall of one attribute inhibiting the recall of another
mood (bias in internal search) most likely to recall info, feelings, and experiences that match their mood
external search the process of collecting info from outside sources
prepurchase search (external search) a search for info that aids a specific acquisition decisions
ongoing search (external search) a search that occurs regularly, regardless of whether the consumer is making a choice
judgments evaluations of an object or estimates of likelihood of an outcome or event; actual choice not made
decisions making a selection among options or courses of action; choice between alternatives based on judgements
anchoring and adjustment process starting with an initial evaluation and adjusting it with additional info
inept set options that are unacceptable when making a decision
inert set options toward which consumers are indifferent
consideration set to subset of top-of-mind brands evaluated when making a choice
criteria important to a choice goals time framing
cognitive decision making models the process by which consumers combine items of info about attributes to reach a decision
affective decision making models to process by which consumers base their decision on feelings and emotions
compensatory model a mental cost-benefit analysis model in which negative features can be compensated for by positive ones (ex. I wanted a red car but the price of the green car is good so I'll buy it)
noncompensatory model simple decision model in which negative info leads to rejection of the option (ex. I wanted a red car so even though the price of green is good I'll keep looking)
compensatory implications stress attribuates evaluated highly change belief strength on poor performing attributes create new attribute/belief
noncompensatory implications conjunctive: identify/change consumers' cutoff levels, change belief strength, create new important attribute lexicographic: set priorities, change order of importance of existing attributes, create new important attribute
high MAO beliefs (think) - attitudes (opinions) - behavior (do)
low MAO beliefs (think) - behavior (do) - attitudes (opinions)
why do consumers make some decisions with little thought? few product differences perceived distractions, competing priorities relatively unimportant purchases routine buying
brand habit consumer picks product without much thought; may be due to convenience
brand loyalty consumer actively seeks out product
representativeness heuristic making a judgment by simply comparing a stimulus with the category prototype or exemplar
availability heuristic basing judgments on events that are easier to recall; base-rate info may be ignored (how often an event really occurs on average), law of small numbers (the expectation that info obtained from a small number of people represents the larger population)
prospect theory people tend to be risk seeking with prospect of losses people tend to be risk adverse with prospect of gains based on how it is worded (flu epidemic exercise)
expectancy-disconfirmation model perceived actual level of performance vs. expected level of performance perceived > expected = satisfied perceived < expected = dissatisfied
attribution theory a theory of how individuals find explanations for events stability - is the cause of the event temporary or permanent? focus - is the problem consumer or marketer related? controllability - is the event under the customer's or marketer's control?
equity theory a theory that focuses on the fairness of exchanges between individuals fairness of exchange - the perception that people's inputs are equal to their outputs in an exchange
Created by: Shannon Marie Shannon Marie on 2012-10-24

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