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Geography Exam 2

Module 3

What are other fields of study are involved in this discussion? Geology, Soil Science, Botany, Ecology, and Biology.
What are the 2 natural processes that are occurring to the lithosphere and surface of the Earth? Tectonic forces and Gradational forces
What are tectonic forces? push, move, and raise the Earth's surface. Also, the transformation of old rock material into new rock material by the crust's constant motion.
What are gradational forces? ones that scour, wash, and wear down the Earth's surface.
How do changes occur rapidly? They occur rapidly or take a very long time.
What are rapid changes? Volcanic eruption or earthquake
What are changes that take a very long time? Some of the processes of weathering and erosion.
How do landforms form? By the interaction of tectonic (endogenic processes) and gradational (exogenic processes) forces. Also, by mountains rising up, being worn down, and eroded material coming together.
What is geomorphology? the study of landforms
What does geo mean? Earth
What does morph mean? Form
What does ology mean? Study of
What do geomorphologists study? They study all of the processes that influence the erosion, transportation, and deposition of earth materials and the landforms that they make.
How are landforms built overtime? Through a set of endogenic processes and exogenic processes.
What are endogenic processes? They are tectonic forces.
What are exogenic processes? They are gradational forces.
What is the mantle? Near the top of the inner earth.
What is the asthenosphere? The molten and pliable region.
What is on top of the asthenosphere? The lithosphere
What is the lithosphere? The solid and more rigid layer.
What is the crust? It is the upper part of the lithosphere.
What did Alfred Wegener propose? He proposed that the surface of the Earth once possessed a single land mass.
What is the single land mass that surface of the Earth once possessed? Pangaea
What does Pangaea mean? All earth.
What happened when the plate tectonic theory was developed in the 1960s? Wegener had no scientific explanation for the movement and his ideas of a moving Earth were not accepted.
When did Wegener's ideas become accepted? When the plate tectonic theory was developed in the 1960s.
What happened when Pangaea (which did exist) began to break apart about 200 million years ago? It formed Laurasia and Gondwanaland.
When were Laurasia and Gondwanaland formed? About 135 million years ago?
What happened when Laurasia and Gondwanaland drifted apart? They formed the current continents until the present time and position.
What happens when the lithosphere is broken up? It is broken into a # of rigid plates floating on the magma.
How plates in constant motion? By heat and heated material transfers within the earth itself.
How do the lithosphere's plates move? They move as separate entities with respect to one another and interact with each other.
Where do the lithosphere plates move? Along the plate boundaries.
What are the 2 types of plates? Continental and oceanic plates.
Describe continental plates. They are older, thicker, and more bouyant than oceanic plates.
What is occurring along the plate boundaries? Different types of movement and interaction.
What are divergent plate boundaries? They are where plates are moving away from one another.
What does the process of divergent plate boundaries cause? Sea floor spreading, mid-oceanic ridges, and new ocean floors.
How do convergent plate boundaries occur? When 2 plates are moving towards one another.
What happens when plates collide? Heavier oceanic material is subducted under lighter, more bouyant continental material.
What happens in a subduction zone? The lithospheric material is pushed down into the asthenosphere.
How are ocean trenches formed? By the subduction of oceanic plates under other plates.
Where are subduction zones located? They're the location of volcanic activity and volcanoes are distributed mainly in the area of plate boundaries.
How do transform boundaries occur? They occur where one plate is sliding horizontally along the boundary of another.
Where do Earthquakes occur? Along faults in the earth's surface.
Where do many transform faults like the San Andreas fault occur? Along a transform plate boundary.
What is a rift valley? a land-form caused by the spreading apart of land area.
What happens when rifts become wider? You get the formation of new seas and then oceans.
What is the most famous rift valley? The Great Rift Valley in Africa.
What are the three classifications of rock formation? Igneous,sedimentary, and Metamorphic.
How is igneous rock formation classified? They're rocks formed by the cooling and hardening of earth materials when molten material escapes. - Magma - Lava Also, by where molten material hardens. - Intrusive - Extrusive
What is magma? Under surface, molten rock beneath the surface of the Earth migrates towards the surface through fissures in the rock strata.
What is lava? On surface, magma spilling out over the surface of the Earth.
What is intrusive? Below ground (cooled magma)
What is extrusive? Above ground (cooled lava)
How is sedimentary rock formation classified? Rocks made from particles of gravel, sand, silt, and clay that were eroded from existing rocks. They're compressed in stratas. They can also be made from organic materials and marine skeletons or coal.
What is strata? Horizontal beds.
What are examples of organic materials? Limestone from coral
Where do marine skeletons and coal come from? Vegetation
How is metamorphic rock formation classified? Rocks formed from igneous and sedimentary rocks. They're changed by temperature, pressure, and sometimes chemical reaction. These rocks are changed as shale to slate, limestone to marble, and granite to gneiss.
What is shale made of? Sedimentary rock
What is limestone made of? Sedimentary rock
What is granite made of? Igneous rock
How often do rocks alter and transform? All rocks are constantly being altered and transformed.
How does a rock change overtime? No rock remains the same forever due to forces within the Earth's system.
What is the density of rocks? It is the function of the types of minerals contained in the rock.
What is sima? Denser rocks for silicon-magnesium.
What is sial? Less dense rocks for silicon-aluminum.
What is spatial distribution of minerals? It is the result of movements of the Earth's crust.
What are shields? Areas of continental crust that have not significantly changed for millions of years. Also, contain rich concentrations of minerals.
What are the two main types of tectonic forces? Diastrophism and volcanism
What is diastrophism? Pressure acting on the plates that deforms the surface by folding, twisting, warping, breaking, or compressing rock.
What is volcanism? Transportation of heated material to or toward the surface of the Earth.
What happens when crustal rocks are subjected to a lateral compression? They fold.
What is folding? It is a bending process of crustal rock.
What is the result of folding crustal rock? It results in wavelike formations of the terrain over large areas.
What does folding produce? It produces mountain ridges and valleys, such as those found in Southeastern Pennsylvania.
What is faulting? It is fractures in rock material caused by stresses.
What are the different types of faults? Normal fault and reverse (or thrust) fault.
Define normal fault. It is near a divergent boundary, rocks are stretched until they break with an up/down movement.
Define reverse (or thrust) fault. When converging plate boundaries cause fractures due to compression. Older rock strata is thrown over younger rock strata. Later erosion my obscure orientation of the original fault.
What are the types of landforms associated with faulting? Fault block mountains, horst, and graben.
What is an example of fault block mountains? Wasatch Mountains in Utah
What is horst? An uplift of land between 2 parallel faults.
What is graben? Downfall of land between 2 parallel faults.
What is escarpment? Any steep slope, resulting from (thrust) faulting (converging plate boundaries cause fractures due to compression)
What are Earthquakes? They are caused by a rapid release in energy in a fault are. They occur when tensions and the compression at the junction become so great that only an Earth ______ can release some pressure. Relatively quick and have a distance decay effect.
What is focus? The location under the Earth's surface where the earthquake occurs.
What is epicenter? Location on Earth's surface directly above the focus.
The earthquake sends out ______ that are measured with a ______. 1) Seismic waves 2) Seismograph
What is seismology? It is the study of Earthquake waves.
Earthquake intensity is measured by the _____ (___ to ___ logarithmic scale) and ______ that measures the amount of displacement compared to the length of the fault. 1) Richter Scale 2) 0 3) 9 4) Moment Magnitude
Magnitude ___ to ___ are major quakes that can destroy buildings and kill many people if they occur in populated ares. 1) 7 2) 8
What is a Tsunami? Is a seismic sea wave related to earthquake activity.
What can an earthquake cause? It can cause a displacement of the sea floor that sea water rushes into.
A Tsunami can be up to ______ ft high, moving up to ____km/hr. 1) 100 2) 500
What is the r Volcanoes have a strong spatial relationship with earthquake and fault line areas.
What is extrusive volcanism? It occurs when the magma spills out over the surface of the Earth as lava.
The ____ of _____ determines the violence of the eruption as well as the type of land-form formed. 1) Chemistry 2) Magma/lava
A _____ erupts "runny" lava that flows easily and accumulates in layers. Shield volcano
What is basalt? Cooled rock
A ___ is formed by the vast accumulation of lava that flows mainly from quiet fissures. Flood basalt
____ are far more explosive in their eruptions. Composite cone volcanoes
What happens during an eruption? The magma is thick and ash, pyroclasts, and gases are sent high into the atmosphere. Lethal gas clouds are also sent down the volcano's slopes.
_____ or _____ such as Mt. Ranier in Washington state are the most common landforms associated with extrusive volcanism. 1) Cone shape mountains 2) Volcanic peaks
If a volcano erupts violently enough it can blow its top completely off resulting in the formation of a ______. Caldera
What is a caldera? It is a vast circular pit that usually fills with water such as what happened to form Crater Lake in Oregon.
____ are responsible for the reduction in the level of the land surface. Gradational processes
What are the 3 types of gradational processes? Weathering, mass wasting, and erosion.
What is weathering? A breakdown of rock material that prepares material for relocation.
What is mass wasting? When the force of gravity moves material.
What is erosion? An agent other than gravity moves material; these agents are usually water (in different forms) and wind.
What are the 2 types of weathering? Mechanical (or physical)and chemical weathering.
What is mechanical weathering? Is the physical disintegration of Earth material at or near the surface but this does not alter the chemical make-up of the rock.
What are the 3 most important processes in mechanical weathering? Freezing and thawing, root action, and salt action.
What is chemical weathering? Decomposes rocks into their component parts by chemical reactions rather than just fragmenting the rocks.
What is chemical weathering dependent on? The availability of water and heat.
When does less chemical weathering occur? In cold and dry places than in warm and wet ones.
What are the 3 types of chemical weathering? Oxidation, hydrolysis, and carbonation.
What is oxidation? It occurs when water combines with rock minerals (such iron ) to form oxides.
What happens to the oxides? They decompose.
What is hydrolysis? It occurs when water comes into contact with other rock minerals such as aluminum and silicates and chemically changes these materials.
When water combines with carbon dioxide (a gas found both in the atmosphere and in soils) it forms a weak _____. Carbonic acid
What is carbonation? Carbonic acid interacts with other minerals and decomposes. It is important in limestone forming caverns and passageways and creating Karst topography.
Weathering alone _________; it just prepares material for movement by gravity and erosion and also __________. 1) Does not create landforms 2) Prepares material for the creation of soil
What are the variables affecting mass movement? The steepness of the slope, how broken-up the material is, the presence/absence of vegetation, and the level of moisture content.
What is soil creep? It is the slow movement of soil particles that presses against vegetation and causes tress to tilt and slant downward.
One land-form associated with mass movement in dry regions is a _____ or a _____. 1) Talus cone 2) Talus slope
Where are cone-like accumulations of rock material found? At the base of a hill.
Courser material is at the _____ of the cone and finer material is found at the _____. 1) Bottom 2) Top
Erosion carves existing landforms into new shapes, known as ______, as well as creating other new landforms in the places where the materials are finally transported, known as ______. 1) Erosional landforms 2) Depositional landforms
What are the forms of erosional agent water? Running water, groundwater, glaciers, and waves and currents.
What is the most important erosional agent? Running water
Water percolates into the Earth to become ______ and it runs off the surface. Groundwater
What are the factors that the ability of water to erode depends on? The type of rock and vegetation cover, the length and slope of the surface, and the amount of precipitation.
What does the type of rock and vegetation cover do? It helps prevent exposed material from being susceptible to erosion.
The _____ the slope, the ____ the erosion potential. 1) Steeper 2) Greater
What does it mean if there is more rainfall? It means that there is more erosion
______ (or runoff) of surface water will channelize into streams and rivers. Overland flow
A stream will drain groundwater and overland flow from an area called its _____. Drainage basin
What is drainage density? It is the total length of all channels divided by the area of the basin.
Every stream has a _______ which is the amount of material being carried either in solution, in the water, or rolled along the stream bed. Sediment transport
The _____ the flow, the _____ the carrying capacity of the stream or river and its ability to _____. 1) Faster 2) Greater 3) Erode
By continuously eroding and depositing material, streams tend toward a stable condition known as their _______. Grade
A graded stream transports an amount of sediment ____ to that it has collected. Equal
The gradient of the stream also declines as the stream reaches its _____. Mouth
As water loses its velocity by either reaching flatter land or leaving its channel, it will deposit its material called _____ and form such features as river deltas, floodplains, and alluvial fans. Alluvium
A _____ at the mouth of a river is a very dynamic land-form. River delta
An ______ occurs mainly in arid places at the base of mountain ranges. Alluvial fan
_____ are part of the evolution of stream landscapes. Erosional landforms
In the early development of streams, narrow _______ and _____ are formed. 1) V-shaped channels 2) Valleys
Over time as the hillsides are eroded and worn down, the steam channels begin to _____ and flat _____ fill the valley bottom. 1) Meander 2) Floodplains
How are meanders formed? They are formed by flowing water changing direction from side to side.
On the outer side of a meander bend the ____ is eroded and on the inner side ____ is deposited. 1) Bank 2) Material
______ are formed along the river's banks as silt is deposited whenever the river overflows its banks. Natural levees
Over time, the course of the river will change as meanders are cut off as their neck narrows leaving behind ______. Oxbow lakes
The evolution of river development has been formalized as a geomorphic cycle in which uplifted land over time is finally worn down to a ______. Peneplain
Today _______ are restricted to Greenland and Antarctica. Continental glaciers
_______ are found around the world in various highland regions. Alpine glaciers
Above an _________ in a glacier is an ________ and below is an ___________ where more ice melts away. 1) Equilibrium line 2) Accumulation zone 3) Ablation zone
The ice plucks away ____ and moves it as the glacier _______. 1) Rock 2) Advances
Glaciers create many different types of what landforms? Erosional and depositional landforms.
In alpine areas, V-shaped river valleys are filled by ice and eroded forming deep ______, ______, ______, _______, _________, and _________. 1) U-shaped valleys 2) Hanging valleys 3) Aretes 4) Horns 5) Cirques 6) Tarns
Depositional landforms such as _______ and _______ are formed in the _______ from ________ at the end of a glacier as it recedes. 1) Terminal moraines 2) Recessional moraines 3) Out-wash plain 4) Glacial till
Where glacial lobes come together ______ are formed as _____ merge. 1) Medial moraines 2) Lateral moraines
Where are terminal and recessional moraines distributed? Throughout the Midwest and Northeast in the United States.
Glaciers have had a ______ impact on the economic development of _____. 1) Major 2) North America
The lower Missouri and the Ohio River were formed by _______ following the edge of the ice sheets. Meltwater channels
Rich farmland in the Great Plains resulted from _______. Glacial till deposits.
As wind friction moves water waves to shallow water near shore, the waves are forced to heighten and overturn until a _______ is formed that crashes into the shoreline. Breaker
Besides eroding the shore with its impact what else does a wave action do? The up-rush of water carries away material for deposit elsewhere.
When waves break, their energy gives a push to water in a direction parallel to the shore generating a ___________ that travels parallel to the shore. Long-shore current (can carry sediment long distances before depositing it)
Material is deposited to form _____, _____, _______, and _______ (formed when a ______ blocks off a bay). 1) Beaches 2) Barrier islands 3) Spits 4) Lagoons 5) Bay-mouth bar
Like _____, these depositional landforms (beaches, barrier, islands, spits, and lagoons) are very _____ and change with the passage of new _______ that ______ the wave action. 1) Deltas 2) Dynamic 3) Storms 4) Increase
What are headlands? Where harder rock is found.
As the waves approach the shore, they pivot towards _____ thus wave energy is concentrated on the headlands and is diminished in the ____. 1) Headlands 2) Bays
When waves approach the shore, the result is the formation of different erosional features such as _______, ______, and ________. 1) Ocean cliffs 2) Bays 3) Stacks
What is limited vegetation? The main factor in dry areas and it holds soil together.
What is mechanical weathering? It is a very important process as sand is blown against rocks further fragmenting them and the loose material is blown away.
In desert regions, depositional landforms of _____ are formed by wind action. Sand dunes
In mid-latitude regions, westerly winds will blow silt from drier steppe zones into neighboring areas forming ______ depositions which are rich in nutrients and form some of the major agricultural areas in the world. Loess
What is an important component of interrelated human and natural systems? Biochemical cycles
What are biochemical cycles? They are different recycling (or renewal) cycles in which elements are recycled from one location and form to another.
Why is it important to understand recycling processes relating to water, carbon, nitrogen, and other nutrients in the biosphere? Because human activity is putting more pressure on the ecosystems within which each of theses processes occur.
How is water distributed? As oceans, ice sheets/glaciers, groundwater, surface water, soil, and the atmosphere.
_____ is in the ______ covering _____ of earth's surface and contains salt and minerals left behind when evaporation occurs. 1) 9.73% 2) Oceans 3) 70%
______ is in _____ and ______ -- _____ of earth's fresh water is in this long term storage. 1) 2.14% 2) Ice sheets 3) Glaciers 4) 80%
_____ is in ______, _____, _____ and the _____ -- the usable freshwater. 1) 0.56% 2) Groundwater 3) Surface water 4) Soil 5) Atmosphere
What are the 4 reasons why water is important? Living organisms are primarily water,excellent solvent(dissolving many substances), large amounts of heat energy: changing water from one state to another, & key to geographic variation in environmental conditions: 1 of 2 major controls on climate regions
What is the hydro-logic cycle? It is the process by which water in various states moves from the ocean to the atmosphere to and back.
The oceans evaporate ____ than they _____ from precipitation - land ____ more precipitation than it ______; balance is achieved by ____. 1) More 2) Receive 3) Receives 4) Evaporates 5) Runoff
How is water transported from oceans to land? By atmospheric circulation
How is water transported from land to oceans? By runoff
Water is purified through _____ as ______ and _____ are left behind. 1) Evaporation 2) Minerals 3) Salts
The aggregate transfers of water in its different forms are part of a _______. Water budget
The amount of water that leaves the oceans through _____ must return to the ocean either as _____ or ______ in order to be in balance. 1) Evaporation 2) Precipitation 3) Runoff
If more _____ to the ocean than ____ then sea levels would _____; if more ____ than _____ then sea level would ____. 1) Returned 2) Left 3) Rise 4) Left 5) Returned 6) Lower
What are local water budgets? They are a local version of the hydro-logic cycle.
How are local water budgets accounted for? They account for how much water is being added through precipitation and lost through evapotranspiration (ET) and surface and subsurface runoff and how much moisture is in storage in the soil.
In a local water budget, all of the incoming precipitation (P) during a given time period is allocated to what? Actual evapotranspiration (ACTET), soil moisture recharge (deltaST), and surplus water (S.
What is the equation for precipitation? P = AE + S + deltaST
How can energy be used? It can be used in evapotranspiration (latent heat); thus energy is Potential Evapotranspiration (POTET).
What is deficit (D)? It is the extra energy in a water budget because there is not enough water to meet climatic demand.
What is the energy budget equation? PE = ACTET + D (expressed in units of water)
When is moisture removed/added from storage in the soil? Whenever the POTET exceeds the P for any month and added whenever P exceeds POTET.
When can surplus coincide with potential flooding? Surplus times of year can coincide with potential flooding if the surplus is large enough.
These budgets also highlight that it is ____ the total amount of energy and precipitation in a year that only matters but also the seasonal distribution of _____ and ______. 1) Not 2) Energy 3) Precipitation
What is the water budget for a Tropical Rainforest? No soil moisture deficits but significant moisture surpluses.
What is the water budget for a Tropical Savanna? Some moisture surplus and large amounts of soil moisture deficits.
What is the water budget for a Desert? No moisture surplus but large amounts of soil moisture deficits during the entire year.
What is the water budget for a Steppe? A little recharge and utilization but mainly soil moisture deficits for most of the year.
What is a climate water budget for the Mediterranean? Large soil moisture deficits during summer season - this limits the vegetation.
What is the water budget for Humid Subtropical? Some small soil moisture utilization but large surpluses.
What is the water budget for Marine West Coast? Some soil moisture utilization deficits but also surpluses.
What is the water budget for Humid Continental? Ranges in deficits from drier areas with larger deficits (the prairie) to moister areas with larger surpluses (the deciduous forest). Also a climate with a zero POTET for some months.
What is the water budget for the Subarctic? Smaller surpluses than the Humid Continental and more months (6) with a zero PE; the surpluses are all in the form of snow.
What is the water budget for Tundra? 8 months with zero POTET; total water need is small but very peaked in short summer season.
Agriculture uses approximately _____ of all water for human needs. 80%, almost all of this is used for irrigation.
In drier plain areas, more land is under cultivation from irrigation using waters from the giant ______. Ogallala Aquifer
What else can change evapotranspiration rates? Modification of forests and deforestation .
Living organisms exchange carbon with the environment through _____, _____, eating, and production of waste material. 1) Photosynthesis 2) Respiration
How is the carbon cycle interlinked with the oxygen cycle. Photosynthesis: CO2(air) + H2O (soil) + energy (solar) yields carbohydrates (stored) + O2 (released) Respiration: Carbohydrates + O2 (air) yields CO2 + H2O: (released) + energy (heat)
Where is carbon also stored? In the lithosphere through oceanic sedimentation (such as limestone) and the creation of fossil fuels.
How is the spatial and temporal distribution of photosynthesis determined by? By Climate
Lowest levels of CO2 content are during the _____ after _____ photosynthesis. Greatest levels are in the _______ during the spring. 1) Autumn 2) Summer 3) Northern Hemisphere
The level of forestation and agriculture impact on the amount of ____ present in the environment. Biomass
In some areas deforestation and urban development is _____ carbon storage but in other areas of the world, forested area is _____ (such as the ______ United States). 1) Reducing 2) Increasing 3) Eastern
Where is soil? At the interface between the lithosphere and the biosphere/atmosphere.
What is humus? Layers of organic matter that soil is composed of.
Inorganic matter (disintegrated rock), air, and water resting on an underlying bedrock (or ____). Parent material
What are soil properties due to? Climate, parent material, biological activity, topography, and time.
Where does soil develop? In layers called soil horizons.
The surface layer or ________ is composed of vegetative and animal litter that is in the process of decay. O-horizon
Beneath the O-horizon is the ____ representing the nutrient rich topsoil containing a high humus content. A-horizon
Heavy rains will ____ soil in which the nutrients percolate down to the _____. 1) Leach 2) B-horizon
The ______ is where weathering is disintegrating bedrock into small particles that will become part of the soil. At the bottom is ______. 1) C-horizon 2) Bedrock
Soils are broadly divided into 11 ______. Soil orders
What are oxisols? Humid tropical and subtropical soils. They are highly leached and acidic and very poor for agriculture.
What are aridisols? Dry and low in organic material, found in desert regions, and agriculturally productive if properly irrigated.
What are mollisols? They are extremely rich in nutrients, found in semi-arid grassland regions, and most fertile soil for agriculture.
What are alfisols? They are moderately leached but rich in nutrients, found in humid, mid-latitude regions of deciduous forests, and also good for agriculture once the forests have been removed.
What are spodosols? They are thick acidic humus caused by low rate of decay in colder areas, found beneath coniferous forests in high latitudes, and poor soil for agriculture.
Where does desertification occur? In semi-arid regions as soil fertility is depleted so that grasslands become shrub-lands.
Where does salinization of soils occur? In semi-arid regions due to improper irrigation systems.
Climate regions and soil orders are also correlated with the distribution of _____ - ecosystems characterized by certain types of plant and animals. Biomes
What are the major biomes? Forest, savanna, scrub-land, woodland, grassland, desert, and tundra.
What are the categories that forests are grouped in? Tropical rainforests, mid-latitude broad-leaf deciduous forests, needle-leaf or boreal forests, and temperate rainforests.
What is a tropical rainforest? It is a broad-leaf evergreen forest.
In the rain forest there is a solid canopy of _____ such that only filtered light reaches the ground. Tree tops
Tropical rainforests have the highest degree of ______. Biodiversity
Soils of mid-latitude broad-leaf deciduous forests are less leached than soils of the ____ and more ____ for agriculture. However that fertility declines once decaying _____ material is not replaced. 1) Tropics 2) Fertile 3) Organic
What is the taiga? Coniferous forests
Where are temperate rainforests located? On the west coasts of North and South America.
Which biomes have a pronounced dry season? Savanna, scrub-land, and open woodlands.
What is a savanna? It is a lush grassland (isolated trees) in Africa and South America.
Savanna soils are less leached but this biome is prone to _____. Fires
What is chaparral? Scattered broad-leaf evergreen trees and shrubs.
What is a prairie? A biome of tall grasses.
What is a steppe? A short-grass area.
The vegetation of deserts include drought resistant _____ and _____ plants but there are also _______ such as in the Sahara or Death Valley, California. 1) Shrubs 2) Cactus 3) Barren sand dunes
What are the major biomes? Forest, savanna, scrub-land, woodland, grassland, desert, and tundra.
What are the categories that forests are grouped in? Tropical rainforests, mid-latitude broad-leaf deciduous forests, needle-leaf or boreal forests, and temperate rainforests.
What is a tropical rainforest? It is a broad-leaf evergreen forest.
In the rain forest there is a solid canopy of _____ such that only filtered light reaches the ground. Tree tops
Tropical rainforests have the highest degree of ______. Biodiversity
Soils of mid-latitude broad-leaf deciduous forests are less leached than soils of the ____ and more ____ for agriculture. However that fertility declines once decaying _____ material is not replaced. 1) Tropics 2) Fertile 3) Organic
What is the taiga? Coniferous forests
Where are temperate rainforests located? On the west coasts of North and South America.
Which biomes have a pronounced dry season? Savanna, scrub-land, and open woodlands.
What is a savanna? It is a lush grassland (isolated trees) in Africa and South America.
Savanna soils are less leached but this biome is prone to _____. Fires
What is chaparral? Scattered broad-leaf evergreen trees and shrubs.
What is a prairie? A biome of tall grasses.
What is a steppe? A short-grass area.
The vegetation of deserts include drought resistant _____ and _____ plants but there are also _______ such as in the Sahara or Death Valley, California. 1) Shrubs 2) Cactus 3) Barren sand dunes
Where is a tundra biome located? In high altitudes above the tree line or in a tundra climate zone.
____ exists limiting soil development. Permafrost
Created by: studyNerd21