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Cognitive Psych

Test 2

Sensory Memory: Sperling Interested in knowing how much information can enter the system to be identified
Sensory Memory: Example of a storage capacity question? Is there a limit to how much can be stored, and perceived/recognized in iconic memory (i.e., in a brief exposure)?
Sensory Memory: Whole report procedure? 4.5 items.
Sensory Memory: Partial report procedure? 9 items.
Sensory Memory: Where does evidence for "auditory" information store? Errors made in recall.
Sensory Memory: Given: A B L P K, if "K" is forgotten, subjects will mistakenly recall a soundalike (e.g., "J") rather than a lookalike (e.g., "R").
Sensory Memory: How many items can be stored in visual memory? 9 items.
Sensory Memory: Iconic memory Brief visual storage.
Sensory Memory: Echoic memory Brief auditory memory.
Sensory Memory: Large capacity Almost all of what one sees
Sensory Memory: Decay Begins to decay at ONSET (not offset).
Sensory Memory: Masking Display a random pattern and image is lost.
Sensory Memory: Brief duration between iconic & echoic iconic: 1/4 sec. echoic: 1-3 sec.
Sensory Memory: Pre-categorical representation: Physical partial report advantage
Sensory Memory: Pre-categorical representation: Semantic NO partial report advantage
Working Memory: Forgetting: How long will information stay in short-term memory (without rehearsal)? 18 seconds, items are mostly gone.
Working Memory: Peterson & Peterson: Three consonants with a distracter-task to prevent rehearsal. By varying the delay before recall, they estimated that STM can't even hold on to information very accurately for more than about 6 seconds (recall about 50 percent).Even at 3 seconds performance was only about 80 percent (for just three simple letters!).
Working Memory: Decay Loss of information depends only on time, whether the distracter task is there or not.
Working Memory: Interference Information loss depends on how much other information there is at the same time.
Working Memory: Decay&Interference- Waugh vs. Norman Time vs. number of interfering items. Similar to Brown/Peterson Task.
Working Memory: Retroactive Interference Trying to recall items presented BEFORE later items is poor because these later items interfere.
Working Memory: Proactive Interference Trying to recall items presented AFTER earlier items is poor because earlier items interfere (can't remember which items are old and which are new).
Working Memory: George Miller's "chunking" & magic number 7 Can hold 7 (plus or minus 2) chunks.
Working Memory: Memory codes: What form does it take? (visual, semantic, auditory, etc?) Dominant belief was that information was stored in the form of acoustic codes ("sound"). Evidence for semantic coding comes from phenomena like release from proactive inhibition.
The span of apprehension is: a measure of how much information can enter into consciousness at once.
The partial report procedure has been used to measure space of apprehension. What is the conclusion from these studies? Participants must have apprehended about 75% of the array even though they only reported 3 of 12 items because they did not know what row they were to report prior to seeing the array.
Proactive interference is when: material you had learned previously interferes with new learning.
Information can be represented in primary memory: acoustically, semantically, or visuo-spatially.
What may be said about the capacity of primary memory? Capacity varies depending on how the information is encoded.
What of the following is NOT a component of Baddeley's working memory model? Short-term memory.
Which of the following was a problem in Baddeley's original working memory model that the episodic buffer was designed to address? The original model did not provide a way for working memory to interact with long-term memory.
What can be said about the relation between working memory span and reading comprehension? Working memory span is an extremely good predictor of reading comprehension.
Memory Encoding: Mnemonic Devices Strategies to improve memory for information.
Memory Encoding: Mnemonic Devices (three elements) 1.provides structure 4 learning 2.Results in durable memory through assoc.'s with information already stored in long-term memory, as well as through added cognitive efforts (storage). 3.Provides cues/context recalling the stored information (retrieval).
Memory Encoding: Method of Loci Mentally arranging to-be-remembered items within familiar series of imagined locations already stored in memory thru freq. exposure, experience, and/or familiarity with those locations. E.g., rooms in your home, houses along a well-traveled street, etc.
Memory Encoding: Peg Word Method Memorized series of words that serve as mental "pegs" upon which one associates ("hangs") to-be-remembered items in memory. Common example is to use rhymes with the numbers 1 through 10. (One/Bun... Snake)
Rehearsal: 1 A deliberate recycling, repeating, or practicing of the contents of short-term storage.Rehearsal maintains information in a ready state in the short-term store and prevents its loss (due either to decay or interference).
Rehearsal :2 As information is held longer in short-term storage, chances increase that it will be made more permanent (that is, information in STM is copied into LTM, with the strength of that memory being dependant on how much rehearsal it underwent).
Rehearsal: Levels of Processing Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposed an alternative to the two-memory model.
Rehearsal: Levels of Processing: Three criticisms with standard multi-store models -STM capacity seems highly variable depending on the material to be stored. What exactly IS a chunk? -here seems to be evidence that mult. codes are used in both LTM and STM -Decay rates (loss of info) seem 2 vary depending on material being learned
Rehearsal: Levels of Processing: The Proposal Simply, that there are different ways to code information, and each of the memory codes is qualitatively different.
Rehearsal: Levels of Processing: Memory Codes (Four) 1. Preliminary processing 2. Simple identification 3. Semantic processing 4. Elaboration
Memory Codes: 1. Preliminary processing Concerned with physical features (lines, angles, brightness, etc.)
Memory Codes: 2. Simple identification Pattern recognition
Memory Codes: 3. Semantic processing Identification of meaning
Memory Codes: 4. Elaboration Trigger associations, images, stories based on experience with stimulus)
Memory Codes: Analysis of a stimulus can proceed from sensory to pattern recognition to semantic-associative stages. Each successive level corresponds to a "deeper" level of processing.
Memory Codes: Each level has separate decay rate. The more "shallow" the processing, the weaker the memory for that information (memory trace), hence, the faster it will decay from memory. The deeper the code used to store an item, the more memorable the item will be.
Memory Codes: In keeping w/ other researchers who showed that rehear. seems necessary for info to be transferred to a more permanent storage state as well as our pers. experiences with rehearsal, Craik & Lockhart also propose that rehearsal processes are imp. 4 memory
Rehearsal: Two types of rehearsal strategies that may be employed 1. Type I or Maintenance rehearsal 2. Type II or Elaborative rehearsal
Rehearsal: Type I or Maintenance rehearsal Recycling/repetition of information This will not increase the strength of the memory trace, but will only keep the item where it is. This form of rehearsal is not sufficient to transfer information into a permanent memory.
Rehearsal: Type II or Elaborative rehearsal Relate information to what is already encoded in permanent storage. This is the only way to increase the strength of a memory trace to transfer it to a permanent memory state.
Rehearsal: Four Criticisms of Levels of Processing Approach 1. Circular logic 2. Can't predict outcomes prior to the experiment 3. Distinctiveness 4. Can't account for "levels" effects within levels
Rehearsal: Circular logic Can't define the depth of processing of stimuli until after the experiment.
Rehearsal: Can't predict outcomes prior to the experiment Depth of processing used to interpret outcomes as though one supported the other.
Rehearsal: Distinctiveness Semantic is more distinctive than phonemic because there are only a few unique phonemes (high overlap = low distinctiveness) whereas each word has a unique meaning which makes it much more distinctive.
Rehearsal: Distinctiveness: (Four) Primary: Unusual relative to the current task demands. Secondary: Unusual to what we know in general. Emotional: Unusual in that it produces a strong affective response. Processing: Unusual by way of how you process it into memory.
Intention or Effort is Irrelevant? Can encoding be improved through "extra effort"? Hyde&Jenkins-1/2 of partic. told 2 process Deeply (rate pleas.), the other 1/2 manip. to process more Shallowly. Incidental memory task: u dont know a test is coming. Intentional memory task: u are forewarned about the test.
Memory Loss vs. Retrieval Failure: This is an issue of availability vs. accessibility. Types of retrieval: recall vs. recognition. Performance is usually better for recognition than recall. Suggests that strict memory measures (recall) does not accurately measure long-term memory.
Memory Loss vs. Retrieval Failure: The additional context (seeing the item) apparently aids in finding it in long-term memory.
Memory Loss vs. Retrieval Failure: Therefore, it seems reasonable that the more context one has available to store information, the more likely some context will be around when you need to recall the information from LTM.
Memory Loss vs. Retrieval Failure: 1. Transfer Appropriate Processing 2. Encoding variability 1.Encoding specificity:Tend to rmbr smthg better under cndtns that match cndtns during which that smthg was initially encoding 2.more ways something is encoded,more durable the item will be in memory&the more likely will be 2 retrieve the info when needed
Repetition Priming: Previous exposure facilitates responses to later repeated exposures (regardless of "depth" of initial processing).
Repetition Priming: Jacoby and Dallas (1981): Gave subjects a list of words. Some asked to answer physical-level questions, some asked pattern-based question ("Does it rhyme with truck?"), others asked a semantic question ("Does it mean the same as smile?").
Repetition Priming: Explicit memory (recognition): Showed the standard "levels of processing" effect, semantic items were recognized best (deeper processing resulted in better memory).
Repetition Priming: Implicit memory (naming): Showed no "levels of processing" effect. Subjects had to name words presented for only 35-ms (and then masked). Half the words were old, the rest were new (controls). (See next card)
Repetition Priming: Implicit memory (naming): Continued... Naming was around 65 percent for controls, but 80 percent for old words regardless of how they were initially processed. So, there was an advantage for seeing the items previously, but this advantage did not depend on the level of processing.
Memory Loss: Amnesia: Memory that is physically erased/blocked.
Memory Loss: Amnesia: Retrograde Amnesia: Memory lost for things that happened during the 20-30 minutes before an injury to the brain.
Memory Loss: Amnesia: Anterograde Amnesia: Inability to transfer new items from short term memory into long term memory due to some kind of brain damage from injury or disease. HM: Loss of explicit memory (transferring information from STM to LTM). But a nearly intact implicit memory.
If I wanted to remember the name of a person I had just met, I would be most successfully if I: Tried to relate the person' name to the other memories that I had.
What is one problem with studying real-life emotional events? Highly emotional events also tend to be great stories and are repeated a lot.
When participants learned a list of words and then watched a videotape of proper tooth brushing: They had poorer memory for the words than participants who watched a tape of oral surgery, suggesting that emotion boosts memory.
Research on flashbulb memories is consistent with the idea that flashbulb memories: Operate just like other types of memories.
In Hype & Jenkin's (1973) study on whether the intention to remember something helps your memory, they found that: Participants in the incidental & intentional learning conditions did not differ in their memory for the material.
Most people have problems recognizing a picture of a real penny among a set of similar distractors. From this result we can conclude that: Repeated exposure to an object is not sufficient for committing the object to memory.
Which of the following is the primary assertion of transfer appropriate processing view? When the same processes are used at encoding and retrieval, recall will be successful.
Which of the following findings supports the notion that chess experts rely on prior knowledge about chess (and are not just overall smarter) when attempting to reconstruct chess piece locations? Chess experts did not show enhanced memory for chess pieces that were distributed randomly.
Ur friend tells u that he has come from boring lect. He does't have 2 tell u that the stdts were sitting in chairs & the professor was stndg @ the frnt of lect hall b/c u have a schema for lect. This ex shows how schemas help with which of the following? Making inferences.
When people watch a video of someone performing a routine activity (such as making a bed), they tend to mark out the beginning and ending of "natural units" in a hierarchical fashion, with parts that tended to correspond to functions. This suggests that: script-like knowledge structures are used not only at retrieval, but also when interpreting ongoing behavior.
Memory Retrieval: Common Measures of Memory: Free Recall Essay exam. Minimal info given other than, "recall." This is the most sensitive measure of memory, but also the most difficult in terms of the test.
Memory Retrieval: Common Measures of Memory: Cued Recall Fill in the blank. Get part of, or some related, information.
Memory Retrieval: Common Measures of Memory: Recognition Multiple choice exams. To-be-remembered information is presented, along with other stuff (distracters); subject must distinguish new from old.
Memory Retrieval: Less Common Measures of Memory: Savings in Relearning Ebbinghaus task Learn material 2 a crit.&count the # of trials required 2 meet crit. After a delay, subject relearns the material 2 same criterion; fewer trials 2 crit. reflects savings This is least sens. measure of mem, but also easiest in terms of test
Memory Retrieval: An important principle Whether or not it appears that someone remembers some material depends on the way that you measure their memory. That is, it can appear that someone has forgotten some material, but if you give them a different test, it is clear that they remember it.
Memory Retrieval: Example of Recognition Task Shepard&Recognition memory See 512 words,take 2 choice recog test (mem=88%) See 612 brief sent, take 2recog test (mem=88%) Final exper.- Color pics from magazines Picture superiority effect! *Recog test depends on distracters
Memory Retrieval: Picture superiority effect Pictures tend to be very well remembered!
Memory Retrieval: Importance of cues Transfer Appropriate Processing- Whether the cues make u think of material the same way @ encoding & retrieval. Effect works even if dont change the word, just emphasize different properties of the word
Memory Retrieval: Barclay, Bransford, Franks, McCarrel, & Nitsch (1974) Partic memorize BOLD words in sent. Not be tested on mem for sent, only mem for BOLD. Performance was best when cue forced partic to think of word in same way @ retrieval as did at encoding.
Memory Retrieval: Pushing the Point.. Why do recog tests result in better memory? They give you cues that are more likely to get you to think of material in same way at retrieval as you did at encoding. If recall cue was able to do this to greater degree, should better @ recall than at recog. (Opp of what we usually get)
Memory Retrieval: Tulving & Thomson (1973) Partic see word pairs: glue: CHAIR ground: COLD Rmbr words in cap letters. 2tests, recog(CHAIR NURSE SHELL,which was there)&cued recall(glue:what was other word) Able to recall than recognize Mismatch between encoding&retrieval & results in recog fa
Memory Retrieval: Tulving & Thomson continued... When cue of "Glue" is given, people think of glue as for putting things together & can recall "chair" & how to put it together. Match between encoding&retrieval results in relatively successful recall.
Memory Retrieval: Schemas Memory representations of events; characteristics generally true of the events; but not specific events.
Memory Retrieval: Schemas- encoding Schemas make atypical things stand out, and they are memorable.
Memory Retrieval: Schemas- retrieval Schemas make it seem likely that typical things happened, even if they did not.
Bottom lines for Memory Retrieval: Retrieval success varies w cues.Cues vary in extnt 2 which they make u likely to think about material the way u did @ encoding.Most mem resrchrs believe that all mem is a reconst.: u combine what happened w what u believe prob happened, and that is ur mem
The form of question you are answering right now is what type of memory test? Recognition
If you were to encode the word "pillow" by hearing the sentence, "She always slept with two pillows," you would be: more likely to recall "pillow" with the cue "something used when sleeping" than with the cue "something that is soft."
Why is there recognition failure of recallable words? The encoding and retrieval cues are low associates, and therefore, make you think of the to-be-remembered items in unusual ways.
When might source confusion occur? When one mistakes one's own thought for an event that actually occurred.
The technique known as guided imagery: has been called into question because of its susceptibility to source confusion.
The tip of the tongue phenomenon is: one possible example of occlusion as a cause of forgetting.
An intrusion is: giving an answer that is incorrect in the current context, but would be correct in a different context.
Which of the following terms refers to the active forgetting of an episode that is very painful or emotionally charged? Repression
Which of the following is a problem with using spontaneous recovery as evidence that all memories are never forgotten? Just because some memories can be recovered spontaneously does not mean that all memories may be recovered.
Experimental tests of whether hypnosis aids in memory retrieval conclude that hypnosis: does not improve the accuracy of memory.
Which of the following is NOT a problem with using Wilder Penfield's (1959) stimulation studies as evidence that all memories are never forgotten? In attempts to verify the images patients claimed were memories, Penfield discovered that the events were false.
Memories that feel like they are real memories, but are actually a combination of real events and other information, are called: Constructions
Created by: 546496914