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The Gastrointestinal

Body Functions Chapter 16 Page 397

The gastrointestinal system (GI) is AKA the digestive system.
The gastrointestinal (GI) system prepares food for use by cells through five basic activities: 1. Ingestion 2. Peristalsis. 3. Digestion. 4. Absorption. 5. Defecation.
Ingestion involves taking food into the oral cavity.
In the first two decades of life the average person will ingest 9000 tons of food.
Peristalsis is the wave like action of the gastrointestinal (GI) system that pushes the food along digestive tract.
Borborygmos is the gurgling sound made by the peristaltic movement AKA bowel sounds (BS).
Digestion is the breakdown of food by both chemical and mechanical processes.
Absorption is the movement of digested food into the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems for distribution to the body’s cells.
Defecation is the elimination from the body those substances that are indigestible and can not be absorbed.
The journey of food through the gastrointestinal (GI) system takes an average of 12 hours.
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is AKA alimentary canal.
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a long continuous tube that runs from the oral cavity to the anus.
The length of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is approximately 30 feet.
Digestion begins in the oral cavity (mouth).
Mechanical digestion involves mastication (chewing).
The tongue, labiae, and buccae keep the food between the superior and inferior dentes (teeth).
Between ages 6 months to 2 years there are 20 temporary or deciduous teeth.
By age 13 there are 32 permanent teeth.
The 8 anterior (front) teeth are called incisors
The next 4 teeth are called canine or cuspids.
Canine (cuspids) are used to tear food.
The next 8 teeth are called premolars (bicuspids).
The next 12 teeth are called molars (tricuspids).
The bicuspids and tricuspids are used to grind food.
Each tooth is divided into 3 parts called: 1. The crown. 2. The cervix (neck). 3. The root.
The crown is the portion above the gingivae (gums).
The crown is covered by the hardest substance in the body called enamel.
The cervix (neck) of the tooth is the connection between the crown and root.
The root is embedded into the sockets located in the maxilla (superior jaw) and mandible (inferior jaw).
Chemical digestion occurs in the oral cavity because of the presence of saliva.
Saliva contains an antibacterial enzyme called lysozyme.
An average production of saliva is ½ gallon/day.
Saliva is primarily produced in 3 glands called the: 1. Parotid glands. 2. Submandibular glands. 3. Sublingual glands.
The hard palate forms the anterior part of the roof of the oral cavity (mouth).
The soft palate forms the posterior portion of the roof of the oral cavity (mouth).
Hanging from the posterior border of the soft palate is a cone shaped muscular structure called the uvula.
The uvula prevents food from entering the nasal cavity.
The tongue is a muscular structure and is covered on the superior surface with projections called papillae.
The tongue is connected to the floor of the oral cavity by the lingual frenulum.
The anterior (front) two thirds of the tongue is covered with taste buds.
The four tastes are sweet, sour, salty, bitter.
There are _____ sensory receptors on the tongue. 9000
The pharynx is the throat.
The pharynx begins the process of swallowing (deglutition).
The esophagus is the 10 inch tube between the laryngopharynx and the stomach.
The proximal esophagus passes through the mediastinum
The mediastinum is the space between the lungs.
The distal esophagus pierces the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus.
The sphincter that connects the esophagus to the stomach is called the cardiac sphincter (lower esophageal sphincter).
The stomach is located in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the abdomen.
The stomach is a bag of muscles designed to churn, squash, and squeeze food into a liquid.
The liquid food is called chyme.
Chemical digestion occurs in the stomach due to: 1. HCl. 2. Pepsin.
HCl stands for hydrochloric acid
Pepsin begins the digestion of protein.
The stomach is protected from being dissolved by these enzymes due to a mucus layer.
In 2 to 6 hours the stomach empties all its contents into the duodenum through the pyloric sphincter.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine (bowel).
The second section of the small intestine (bowel) is the jejunum.
The third section of the small intestine (bowel) is the ileum.
80% of the absorption of nutrients occurs in the small bowel (duodenum).
These nutrients include: 1. Simple sugars (glucose). 2. Amino acids (protein). 3. Fatty acids. 4. Water. 5. Vitamins. 6. Minerals.
The ileum empties into the large intestine (bowel) through the ileocecal valve (sphincter).
The first section of the large intestine (bowel, colon) is called the cecum
A finger-like projection off of the cecum is called the (vermiform) appendix.
The appendix is located in the right lower quadrant (RLQ) of the abdomen.
More specifically the appendix is located in the right inguinal (iliac) region of the abdomen.
The second section of the large intestine (bowel, colon) is called the ascending colon.
The ascending colon turns left at the hepatic flexure.
The third section of the large intestine (bowel, colon) is called the transverse colon.
The transverse colon curves beneath the lower end of the spleen at the splenic flexure.
The fourth section of the large intestine (bowel, colon) is called the descending colon.
The fifth section of the large intestine (bowel, colon) is called the sigmoid colon.
The sixth section of the large intestine (bowel, colon) is called the rectum.
Stool (feces) leaves the body through the anus.
The act of emptying the rectum is called defecation (defecate) or bowel movement (BM).
The most important function of the large intestine (bowel, colon) is to absorb water.
Stool (feces) should be a semisolid
Normal stool (feces) should be brown and formed (Baby Ruth Bar).
The pancreas is located posterior to the stomach (retrogastric).
The pancreas secretes enzymes into the duodenum that will aid in chemical digestion and neutralize hydrochloric acid (HCl).
Pancreatic enzymes include: 1. Amylase. 2. Trypsin. 3. Chymotripsin.
These enzymes are carried from the pancreas to the duodenum through the pancreatic duct.
The pancreas also secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream.
Insulin will allow glucose to enter the cells.
Glucagon stimulates the liver to release stored sugar (glycogen) into glucose.
Insulin and glucagon regulate and control blood sugar (BS) levels.
Pancreatitis can be diagnosed by detecting high levels of serum amylase.
The liver is located in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomen.
The functions of the liver include:1 1. Production of heparin, prothrombin, and thrombin which are involved in the coagulation (clotting) mechanism.
The functions of the liver include:2 2. Production of Kupffer’s cells which destroy old erythrocytes (bilirubin) and leukocytes (WBCs).
The functions of the liver include:3 3. Detoxifies poisons (toxins) such as ammonia, alcohol (ETOH), and medications.
The functions of the liver include:4 4. Stores excess glucose as glycogen.
The functions of the liver include:5 5. Stores copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, + K.
The functions of the liver include:6 6. Produces bile.
Bile is stored and concentrated in the gall bladder.
The function of bile is to emulsify (break up) fats.
The gall bladder is located just inferior to the liver.
Bile is carried from the gall bladder to the duodenum via the common bile duct.
LFTs stands for liver function tests.
LFTs are used to detect hepatic (liver) diseases.
LFTs include:1-4 1. Alkaline Phosphatase abbreviated ALP or Alk. Phos. 2. ALT AKA SGPT. 3. AST AKA SGOT. 4. LD AKA LDH.
LFTs include:5-9 5. Ammonia. 6. Albumin (Alb). 7. Bilirubin (bili) or neonatal bilirubin. 8. Hepatitis A virus (HAV). 9. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).
LFTs include:10-12 10. Hepatitis B surface antibody (Anti-HBs). 11. Hepatitis C virus (HCV). 12. A hepatic function panel (profile) consists of: a. Albumin (Alb). b. Bilirubin (bili). c. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). d. AST (SGOT). e. ALT (SGPT).
HBsAg is a test to detect the Hepatitis B virus (HBV).
Other tests of the GI system include:1-3 1. UGI (upper gastrointestinal) AKA barium swallow. 2. Lower gastrointestinal (GI) AKA barium enema (BaE, BE). 3. EGD which stands for esophagogastroduodenoscopy.
Other tests of the GI system include:4-6 4. GB (gall bladder) series or GB ultrasound. 5. Colonoscopy refers to the process of viewing the colon (large intestine, bowel). 6. Sigmoidoscopy refers to the process of viewing the sigmoid colon.
An UGI and lower GI are referred to as a GI Series.
Created by: willowsalem