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4 Stages

Classics Nov 16

American character shaped by what? moral, ethics, religion Puritan
1st/most famous Puritan group 1620 Cape Cod
Everyday/spiritual worlds combined Puritan
Who are Puritans? Protestant groups, purify Church of England, want simple forms of worship b/c personal experience, gov shouldnt get involved
Puritan: most of humanity sin, but God sent Jesus to save some
Puritan: fuzzy lines between.. saved or sinners
Puritan values self-reliance, industriousness, temperence, simplicity
Mayflower compact = ground for... constitutional democracy
Puritan: Saints should influence... the gov
Puritan Bible connect to your life, model for writing (simple), life is a journey to salvation, literal word of God, emphasize education, read and understand theological debates = necessity, close watch on inner/outer events
Age of REason Enlightenment
Rationalism humans can arrive at truth w/ reason instead of past, faith, or intuition, human history marked by progress to perfecter existence
Isaac Newton God vs. clockmaker, earth runs on its own, God gave humans reason - think in ordered, locical manner
Cotton Mather? Puritan minister, natural science and medicine, 1st scholarly essay on smallpox medicine, sin =cause of sickness, inoculation- method to deal with smallpox==OPPOSED b/c from Muslims
Cotton Mather contradiction he is a Puritan and a practical scientist
REAlism is a practical approach to social change & scientific research... it caused... an urge to experiment
PUritan: God reveals himself to certain people, possible for ALL to discover natural laws through reason
Deism unite all religions, people are naturally good, God's objective = happieness, dont worship, but do good to others
Self Made Americans lit. practical, political, organize/govern a nation
ex of Self Made American lit. Autobiography by Ben Franklin
Salem Witchcraft Trials Mass, doctor diagnosed, accused others, trials, delusion?
Puritan 1620-1800
American Romanticism 1800-1860
Autobiography by Ben Franklin (rationalism) goals = independence, prosperity, commerce, urban civilization, journey to Philadelphia ( success, self-realization)
Arthur Mervyn by ?? and what type? Charles Brockden Brown, Romanticism
Arthur Mervyn Journey to Phil., plague- ridden world of decay, corruption, evil
Characteristic Romantic Journey countryside, independence, moral clarity, healthful living
Romanticism author Brown, Poe, Irving, Whittier, Holmes, Dickinson, Thoreau, Melville, Hawthorne, Longfellow, Whitman, Cooper
Poe Romanticism, Gothc, journey of imagination
Rip van Winkle by Washington IRving 1st truly professional writer, immortal story about escape from civilization and responsibility
American Romanticism journey away from corruption of civilization, limits of rational thought, integrity of nature and freedom of imagination
WAshington Irving Rip van Winkle, The Sketch Book of Geoffry Crayon, Gent
John Greenleaf Whittier Justice and Expediency
Oliver Wendell Holmes Old Ironsides
Poe writings The RAven and Other Poems
Henry David Thoreau Walden
Herman Melville Moby Dick; or the Whale
Nathaniel Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow The Courtshi of Miles Standish
Walt Whitman Leaves of Grass
Life 1800-1860 biggest city NYC
Life 1800-1860 where? tenement buildings, streets- dirty
Life 1800-1860 travel by? horses, injured, collapsed, malnutrition, overwork, left to die on curb, disease( cholera epidemic)
Life 1800-1860 violence children , gangs, riots
Life 1800-1860 William Cullen Bryants idea Central Park
Romanticism celebrates imagination value feeling/int/youth innocence>reason,edu sophistication, art infl, Eur, against rat(lmts), nature, worth of indiv, wisdom of past, supernat, poetry=^est expression, myth, legend, folk culture inspiration, science destroys truth seek, faith inner exper
Romantic Escapism to Higher Realms/Truth Exotic settings in natural past, push away dull reality to reveal underlying beauty/truth
Poe explores psycological human mind//Gothic
Romanticism & Puritan similar drew morals from nature, BUT PUritans found God in nature & Ro= generalized emotional/intellectual
American Novel New style/no limits!, as expanded, nationalism
Powerful role in Am Novel Town, country, grontier
James Fenimore Cooper Precaution, The Spy, The Pioneers
Stereotype of America b/c of lit. unsophisticated/uncivilized
Praise English writers Holmes and Hawthorne
Defend Am writers Mathews and Melville
Melville writings Typee, Moby-Dick
Typee dif. backgrounds become friends
Moby-Dick, Typee darkside to humanity
Renaissance rebirth, coming of age
Lyceum movement self improvement, intellectual inquiry, edu. adults, training, Ralph Waldo Emerson (speaker)
Horace Mann improve public edu
Dorothea Dix relieve conditions in institutions (mental)
William Lloyd Garrison end slavery
Eliz Peabody, Margaret Fuller, Emma Willard womens rights
Utopian projects create more perfect society
Transcendental Club Emersons utopian group, Immanuel Kant, self must go beyond everyday human experience, intuition to discover truth
Transcendentalism idealism, true reality underlays phys appearance, human perfectability
1850 military heroes, baseball, cornhusking contests, quilting bees, shorter, die 40, tuberculosis, black plague, big cities-Botson, NY, Phil, Balt, Charleston, marry 13, less crowded
Influential Transcendentalism Thoreau
Renaissance God revealed himself through bible, phys world, everything is a reflection of God, individualism,
Ex of God revealing himself (Renaissance) Bradford-saw death of abusive sailor, Bradstreet-God in nature, fire, Edwards- Gods wisdom, love and purity in sun, moon, mystical world
Renaissance views on tragic events explained spiritually, death-simple part of life, evil b/c separated from God,
Anti-Trans. Hawthorne, Poe, Melville
Romanticism and Trans value intuition, signs in human events
Romanticism uses symbolism
Trans doesnt agree spiritual facts behind nature, ignore darkside
Trans explores good vs. evil, guilt vs. sin
Realism when Civil war/post war (1861-5)
Idealism authors Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne
Concord Hymn, begin Am revolution Emerson
Walt Whitman volunteer hospital visitor, wrote to wounded's loved ones, Song of Myself, optimisitic opinion of human character, Drum Taps, Specimen, Days and Collect
Melville Pessimism, The Plazza Tales, Bartle by the Scrivener, Battle Pieces and Aspects of the War
War in LIt diaries, letters, rare, Ernest Hemingway went to war for purpose of writing about it
Created by: k1s