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Anatomy Test Vocab

Chemistry a branch of science that considers the composition of matter and how this composition changes
Matter anything that has weight and takes up space
Elements all matter is composed of these substances that cant be broken down
Atoms elements are composed of these tiny particles
Nucleus central portion of an atom that is composed of protons and neutrons
Electrons particles that constantly are moving around the nucleus
Protons part of the nucleus that has a positive charge
Neutrons part of the nucleus that has no charge
Atomic number the number of protons in the atom of a particular element
Atomic weight the number of protons and neutrons combined
Ions atoms that gain or loose electrons become electrically charged
Isotopes atoms with the same atomic numbers but different atomic weights
Ionic bond transfer of electrons so that one atom of an element will either become positively charged or negatively charged
Covalent bond the chemical bond between the atoms that creates a molecule
Hydrogen bond another type of chemical bond that is a weak electrical attraction between a hydrogen atom and a another nitrogen or oxygen atom
Molecule when two or more atoms bond
Compounds when tons of different elements combine
Molecular formula represents the number and types of atoms in a molecule
Structural formulas the representations that depict how atoms are joined and arranged in various molecules
Synthesis when two or more atoms bond to form a more complex structure
Decomposition if the bonds in a reactant molecule break so that simpler molecules, atoms or ions form (AB→A+B)
Exchange reaction parts of two different types of molecules trade positions (AB+CD→AD+CB)
Reversible reaction the product of the reaction can change back into the reactant that originally underwent the reaction (A+B=AB)
Catalysts increase the speed of the reaction
Electrolytes substances that release ions in water
Acids electrolytes that release hydrogen ions (H+) in water
Bases electrolytes that release ions that combine with hydroxyl ions
pH measures hydrogen ion concentration
organic contains carbon and hydrogen atoms
inorganic doesn’t contain carbon
carbohydrates provide much of the energy that cells require and supply materials for the cellular structures
sugars another name for carbohydrates
monosaccharide the building blocks for all carbohydrates
disaccharides two monosaccharide’s combined together
polysaccharides two or more monosaccharide’s combined together
lipids organic substances that are insoluble in water but soluble in certain organic solvents
fats are used to store energy for cellular activities
fatty acid one of the building blocks for fats that is the reason
glycerol the other building blocks for fats
saturated a triglyceride fat that has all the carbon molecules connected by single bonds which are produced by animals and solid at room temperature (butter and lard)
unsaturated a triglyceride fat that has at least one double bond between the carbon in the fatty acid which are produced by plants and are liquid at room temperature (sesame and soybean)
phospholipids is a molecule similar to a fat molecule in that it contains a glycerol portion and fatty acid chains but only has two fatty acid chains (part of a cell membrane)
steroid a molecule are complex structures that include four connected rings of carbon atoms
proteins serve as a structural materials, energy sources and hormones
receptors they specialized to bond to particular kinds of molecules
antibodies another type of protein that act against foreign substance that enter the body (white blood cells)
enzymes catalyze vital metabolic processes
amino acids building blocks of proteins
conformation the final protein is a complicated three
nucleic acids form genes and take part in protein synthesis
nucleotides building blocks of nucleic acids which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus
RNA ribonucleic acid that is a single strand of a polynucleotide chain, which transfers part of the DNA for protein synthesis
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid that is a double strand of nucleotides that hold all the genetic information
Created by: mvandevelde